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There are many ways a photon can interact with matter, but since the photon is a quantum mechanical entity, one has to define matter in the quantum regime. In dimensions commensurate to h_bar matter is composed of atoms in various combinations. One way of interacting with matter can be seen here: Atoms are modeled by electrons in orbitals around a ...

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Consider the thing within second quantization form: the Hamiltonian contains term like $b^\dagger a_e+\text{h.c}$, which describes the annihilation of a excitation would produce an photon, and its conjugate procedure (which you cares more): absorbing a photon and becoming excited. This kind of Hamiltonian is derived, in principally, from ...

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Particles are represented by fluctuations in fields in quantum field theory. So if you have a photon and an electron you will have a corresponding fluctuation in each field. The two fields interact with each other and so the fluctuation in the photon field can influence the fluctuation in the electron field and disappear. If you want an analogy think of ...

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I will try in a very general sense, and then you can use your imagination, because books may not answer this for you. Every interaction takes place via some kind of force. When we push a car, we transfer our energy into the car, but the energy first coverts to force, and then goes into the car. Same way, the photon must transform into a tiny force which ...

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