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I have done some builded shots with Vodka and Ice in a -18 C degrees. And because I don't have fotos or links, I just tell you how it goes; 1. Put a bit water on a shot glas and let it freeze. -18 C 2. Put -18 C Vodka (I actually used Amaro del Capo) in the glass above the ice. -Let it stay. What happens? First, the vodka melts the ice and forms a snow ...


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wsc's answer (i.e., Onsager's computation of the free energy) provides one alternative road to a proof of a phase transition in the Ising model. It implies the existence of a phase transition in dimension 2 (for the nearest-neighbor model). Combined with correlation inequalities, this implies existence of a phase transition in any dimension d≥2, and ...


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The $d=2$ (square lattice) Ising model has a special "duality" property (the high-temperature and low-temperature partition functions can be mapped on to one another) discovered by Kramers & Wannier in 1941. This doesn't rigorously prove that a phase transition exists, but it remarkably predicts the critical point where a phase transition, if it did ...


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If the transformation is isothermal, the water added first will become vapor nearly instantaneously. It will keep turning into vapor until enough water is added for the pressure to increase sufficiently to reach the triple point . If you keep adding, the vapor starts condensate in both solid and liquid until no more vapor exist.If the pressure keeps ...


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In many situations in statistical mechanics, the configuration space that you sum over in your partition function is coarse-grained in a way that certain microscopic degrees of freedom are ignored. The weight of each coarse-grained configuration $c'$ in the partition function includes the sum of all weights of microscopic configurations $c$ that get mapped ...


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On the deformation, I yet not know but the order is kept (see bellow). *GLASSY LIQUID-CRYSTALS - OBSERVATION OF A QUENCHED TWISTED NEMATIC Por: KESSLER, JO; RAYNES, EP PHYSICS LETTERS A Volume: A 50 Edição: 5 Páginas: 335-336 Publicado: 1974 * Stripe patterns in the magnetic reorientation of a glass-forming nematic liquid crystal Por: Grigutsch, M; ...


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This "criteria" is neither sufficient nor necessary. There are many symmetry-breaking transitions which are not continuous. For example, it is well-known that $n$-state Potts model has a thermal symmetry-breaking phase transition, and when $n>4$ it is first order. For a more realistic one, I think melting transition is first order. Basically there is no ...


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The amount of heat added to the system is the integral of the specific heat wrt temperature: $$ Q = \int C(T)dT $$ So in the link you give it's just the area under this graph: Although it's true that the specific heat tends to infinity at the lambda point it does so sufficiently suddenly that the area under the graph remains finite. That means the ...


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I am not too familiar with KT transitions yet, but I would like to learn about them myself. I have read in the notes of Prof. Jensen (available online http://www.mit.edu/~levitov/8.334/notes/XYnotes1.pdf) in the end of chapter 4.2 that the divergence in the specific heat is so fast that it is experimentally not observable. Analytically (according to his ...


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Why is solid not big gas particles. Where is the boundary between metals and non metals. Their properties? Their form? When does one change into the other. When does something stop and start being an antenna?



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