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In order to calculate the excluded volume between two spherocylindric rods, the relative angle between them changes the base area of the excluded volume, usually taken as a parallelogram, and the thickness of rods, i.e. $D$ the height of the excluded volume. Consider the picture below, taken from (Basic Concepts for Simple and Complex Liquids, from ...


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I agree that ice has more free space in its solid form. All the bonds, polar bonds, and nuclei form a lattice. Most frozen substances contain less free space than the liquid phase. Well, I think the better way to think of it is as solid water has a high amount of free space compared to other similar solids. Entropy would drive the electrons into the free ...


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The reason for this, simply put, is because of the structure of the lattice formed by the molecules upon freezing. For substances that exhibit this expansion upon freezing, the lattice structure happens to take up more space than when it is a liquid. For example, water (due to the formation/angle of the hydrogen bonds with the oxygen atom) has a hexagonal ...


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In order to understand the significance of center symmetry, consider Yang-Mills theory with dynamical gluons and static test quarks. Gluons are neutral with respect to the charge corresponding to center symmetry transformations, while test quarks are charged. One can now characterize the phase structure of the theory as follows: In the deconfined phase, ...


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There are actually two questions here. At phase equilibrium, yes independent water molecules do enter and leave the liquid vapour interface. The rate of crossing of individual molecules from one phase to another is characterized by an Arrhenius type rate equation of the form: $$\alpha \exp \left[ - \frac{\Delta E}{kT} \right]$$ where $\Delta E$ is the ...


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The definition does not require an "atmosphere". Your "environment" can be vacuum. A liquid can boil in vacuum.



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