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Your question seems to look for a fundamental picture for particles. We have been colliding particles since long time, actually trying to find what is there more fundamental to protons. Since we cannot know in detail what hapens in the short time and space where they occur, what we can do is measure everything that comes out and try to understand from this ...


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We don't currently have an underlying theory for these parameters, we obtain their values experimentally, not theoretically. No, but one day I think the Standard Model will be enhanced to derive some of these paramaters from first principles. I've spoken to a medical doctor called Andrew Worsley who has some interesting "quantum harmonics" ideas about ...


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Within the standard model alone, all these parameters are independent, and to those you can add the masses and mixing angles of the neutrinos. Possible additional symmetries beyond the standard model suggest some relations between the gauge couplings, since renormalization group analyses based on these symmetries lead to unification of these couplings at ...


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1) Quantum fields are properties of the universe. They are functions of space-time whose values close to a particular space-time point $(t,\mathbf{x})$ determine all properties of the universe (gravitation, electromagnetic properties, colors, mass, density, currents, forces, elasticity, etc.) close to this time and position. 2) Particles are elementary ...


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I would like to add to DanielSank's fantastic answer, as I've just had a thought on another way to state his brilliant passage: Consider a violin string which has a set of vibrational modes. If you want to specify the state of the string, you enumerate the modes and specify the amplitude of each one, eg with a Fourier series $$\text{string ...



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