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5

While the other answers beautifully explain why particles aren't spherical in some cases, I'll try to explain in simple terms why the most visibly spherical things in the universe are the way they are. So what natural things are spherical ? To name a few: A water droplet or that of any other liquid having surface tension always tries to be spherical ...

2

What you call "elementary particles" are nothing but quantum number changes of a continuos field (well, our theory models it as a continuous field). They are NUMBERS that characterize an exchange of energy, momentum, angular momentum, spin, charge etc.. A number doesn't have a shape. A number just is. Now, the processes and objects that are being described ...

6

The premise is wrong. Atoms are definitely not "spheres", they just are in common depictions of atoms. Electrons and photons have no extent at all, so they also aren't spherical, just when you need to depict them, the common choice is spheres. Also, orbits of planets aren't circular or spherical, although galaxies tend to be. Let me give a somewhat informal ...

1

The wavefunction depends on the environment - e.g. width of a square well in one dimension - so that you should not be looking for a particle, but an environment with a particle in it. Given that you are interested in this as a theoretical project/thought experiment then depending on what you want in your wave function it may be possible to find a potential ...

0

You could try spraying them with an ion wind from a charged needle. If you need an interior rather than surface charge then you will probably need to hit them with a beam of charged particles of enough energy to penetrate to the interior. The easiest would be to charge them negatively using an electron beam or beta emitting radio isotope. How long they would ...

4

Yes, and this happens all the time in beta decay. In beta decay a neutron turns into a proton, an electron and an anti-neutrino. If you add up the masses of the proton, electron and anti-neutrino you get a total mass slightly smaller than the mass of a neutron. This missing mass has been turned into the kinetic energy of the electron and anti-neutrino. For ...

0

Just to elaborate on the above excellent answers, the inverse square law results from being in 3 spatial dimensions. It's what you get when you solve Laplace's equation in 3 dimensions, which roughly follows from solving the wave equation for these force particles' wave-functions. This results from the potential energy being an inverse $r$ law: ...

1

The bosons given off interact with other bosons given off, which macroscopically is experienced as force. you must have misunderstood. You are talking in words about virtual exchanges of gauge bosons, but first order interactions are between particles exchanging a gauge boson. Photon photon interaction is very weak, and the same is true for the W and ...

1

For a simple classical explanation, you can think of it as follows. If the force is mediated by a stable boson that doesn't decay, such as a photon in the case of electromagnetism, then the number of photons emitted by a charged particle will be conserved, unless of course another charged particle comes along and eats the photon. If the latter happens, then ...

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