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Beam instabilities driven by collective effects The from the beam dynamics point of view, we pretty soon encounter instabilities given by collective effects. The most relevant ones, in case of a single bunch, are the beam-beam interaction, which takes place when two bunches cross each others probing their self-fields, and the wakefields/impedance/image ...


The motion of a charged particle in a magnetic field is the manifestation of the fundamental relationship between magnetism and electrostatic effects. Exactly why the fundamental forces are the way they are is still beyond modern day physics which is why it is hard to give a satisfactory answer to the first part of your question. It just has to be accepted ...


Well, "low pressure" could be considered almost any CRT built by man, since it is very, very hard to achieve a true, absolute vacuum. Cathode rays were systematically observed in Crookes tubes at 10^-6 atm, which is definitely not a vacuum, but can also be considered "low pressure".


Elementary particles are classified into two groups: Bosons & Fermions. Fermions comes with two families: quarks and leptons. Leptons come with three generations (till date no fourth generation leptons observed). Same is true for quarks as well.The first generation consists of electron $e^{-}$ and electron-neutrino $\tau_{e}$. Standard way of ...

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