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For detailed understanding please consult the book "Radiation detection and measurement" by Glenn Knoll. The qualitative answer to your question is, that $\alpha$ particle losses its energy mainly by its interaction with electrons (not nucleus). Hence the electron density is the key factor which decides the range of $\alpha$ particle. if there are N atoms ...

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Iron-57 is a stable isotope , so it does not emit any gamma ray . You measure a prompt gamma from a nuclear reaction ( n , gamma ) .

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No, this idea is pretty much ruled out by experiments involving electron scattering from nuclei, particularly deep inelastic scattering experiments where electrons are scattered off hadrons (particles such as protons, neutrons, etc. now known to be composed of quarks). These experiments do show that quarks have (fractional) electric charges. But if the ...

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I don't know the origin of either convention, so I am reluctant to make any absolute statements, but as an experimenter the question I ask myself is "What material has I learned is present in the sample?" or perhaps "What material do I bring into the lab to observe this line?". The answer to these questions would be Berylium-7 in the former case and ...

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If T2 and T1 could be computed with a mathematical relationship as function of PD only, T2/T1/PD-weighted images would have exactly the same contrast and they would give us the same information, as tissues with the same PD will necessarily have the same value of T2 and T1. T1 and T2 depends on many parameters!

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Once an air sample is taken, it is possible to analyze the constituent atomic species with high sensitivity using laser cooling in a magneto-optical trap. In particular, the amount of radioactive isotopes can be specified, particularly well for Rubidium and Cesium. I heard this on a conference. Maybe you can find more info if you search in the field of ...

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That's a very naive way of looking at it. Natural resources are rarely ever "fixed". There are deposits that are cheap to mine, more deposits that are expensive to mine and unlimited deposits that are too expensive to mine. Why unlimited? Because a deposit that is too expensive will never be mined and it will always be available when you will never need it. ...

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theoretically and practically possible , but would require a lot of energy , try to dissolve and make a salt that precipitates neodymium only , that way you can separate other metals present, then do electrolysis and at cathode ud have neo

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A nuclear weapon doesn't really "explode." OK, I know that there are actual explosives used in the triggering of it, but Mostly it just gets really hot really fast. Virtually all of the blast from a nuclear explosion is the result of the large volume of air that expands when it is suddenly heated by radiation from the bomb. If the bomb goes off on the ...

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There is no simple way of predicting the decay chain for any nuclear decay. There may be several alternative decay chains. It is similar to the case of an excited atom returning to its ground state after it has been excited. Predicting what "route" it takes depends on complicated quantum transition rules that tell you which transitions are allowed and ...

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Electron bombardment of neutral atoms produces X-rays by ionizing the atoms, not by removing the outermost "valence" electrons like you do when you rub a balloon on your hair, but by removing the innermost electrons. The ionized atoms neutralize by picking up charge from the environment into their valence shells. However the hole is the inner shell is ...

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Since the question has not been closed, here are a few references on the subject that exist on the net. Of course a nuclear physics course is a prerequisite for serious physics studies. http://ee.stanford.edu/~hellman/sts152_02/handout02.pdf http://www.abomb1.org/nuketech/ this has many more references inside. ...

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Apologies for evincing magisterial cluelessness about what your diagrams represent and what you'd want to achieve, but I'd array the standard facts on tetraquarks avoiding Young diagrams, although they are self evident in the Dynkin labelling, which I also give, next to the tensor labelling. They may be useful to what you appear to be after--but I can't ...

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They are smoke rocket trails. Before each test blast, technicians fired these rockets up in the air, leaving large smoke trails that rose well above the bomb's mushroom. When the atomic blast's shockwave arrived, they moved the trails. Scientists at observation stations could instantly see the effect of the shockwave, hitting, moving and deforming ...

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THe U238 nucleus is unstable and does undergo "ordinary" radioactive decay. For a U238 nucleus to undergo fission you need to provide the nucleus with something akin to an activation energy of about 7 MeV. One model is that the nucleus is like a liquid drop and adding a neutron can make the drop oscillate so much that it breaks up into two smaller pieces ...

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Nuclei belong to the quantum mechanical framework, the underlying network of all natural forces. They are composed out of protons and neutrons . Protons and neutrons are composed out of 3 quarks each , between quarks , the strong force described by quantum chromodynamics generates the "bag" where the quarks are tightly bound and exist in a sea of gluons ( ...

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My intuitive thinking is that the four nucleons form could be modeled as a tetrahedron--with each nucleon at a vertex and pressed tightly against each neighbor. If you place each of the four particles at the vertices, then each has one like-particle neighbor, and two unlike-particle neighbors. Such a composite particle is known as an alpha particle--and is ...

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