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I) OP's question (v2) seems to be essentially a question of mathematical precision vs. the way physicists express themselves concisely when speaking of "infinitesimals" without becoming too technical by introducing epsilons and deltas and what not. See also this related Phys.SE post. Perhaps the easiest and most elementary way to make sense of the ...


In a comment you write space time symmetries don't fit into the framework of the action since the action is a functional on the fields only not also on space time (space time here appears merely as a dummy variable This isn't quite right. A given spacetime transformation often induces a transformation on fields themselves, and in this way, spacetime ...


Emmy Noether proved both the theorem and its converse. Look for the book "The Noether Theorems" for a precise and discussed formulation of her statements, as well as a translation of the original paper. It seems there is a link to the pdf in the princeton math website (I don't know about copyright issues, however).

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