The Newtonian model of gravity in which the force between two objects is given by $F=\frac{GMm}{r^2}$ and mass is the source, or cause, of gravitation. Newtonian concepts also include the gravitational field, the gravitational potential energy, and the gravitational potential.

The gravitational field is the gravitational force divided by mass. The gravitational potential energy is the integral of the gravitational force. The gravitational potential is given by the gravitational potential energy divided by the mass.

Newtonian gravity can also be formulated in terms of Poisson's equation $\nabla^2\Phi=4\pi G\rho$.

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