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3

The latter idea you talk about is the Giant Impact Hypothesis. It turns out that you can make a moon in a few easy steps (given the correct conditions): Have a bunch of protoplanets whiz about on semi-chaotic trajectories. Smack two of them together at a 45° angle. Let the bits of the protoplanets that don't merge together be ejected from the resulting ...

0

I would like to expand here on the mechanisms of scattering. Light is scattered by particles in the air which act like dipoles, and oscillate because of the electromagnetic frequency of light. Oscillating dipoles may emit a different frequency. There are two mechanisms of scattering. Rayleigh scattering: This occurs when particle sizes are smaller than ...

2

Space is mostly black, because most of space doesn't have light coming from it for you to see. The moon, being basically a big rock, unsurprisingly does not change this: You would expect that standing on a rock would not affect what you see. Earth is unusual in having a sky because it has an atmosphere. The atmosphere is a bunch of gas that changes the ...

5

In addition to the lack of an atmosphere (the primary reason, already addressed in other answers), something that compounds the effect even further is that the lunar surface is quite reflective, and because the people who are taking the images of lunar surfaces often want to have Earth and/or astronauts in the shots and also be able to make out detail in the ...

12

With the atmosphere of the moon being $10^{14}$ times less dense than that of Earth, there is negligible scattering, so whereas on Earth, approximately 25% of direct solar radiation is scattered around (making the sky light up and appear blue), there is no mechanism for this on the moon, and all light from the sun travels (essentially) unaffected to the ...

22

The moon does have a night and a day, but this isn't as fully connected to your question as you might think. The moon is tidally locked with the earth, meaning that the same side always faces earth. Since the moon also orbits around the earth (with a period of a lunar month), this means each side changes, over the course of a lunar month, between facing ...

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