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Several questions of this nature were asked the last days. An electron does not orbit the nucleus as a particle. In Quantum Mechanics the electron is represented by a wavefunction, which gives you the probability of measuring something about the electron. This probability is spherically symmetrical in the ground state of hydrogen, for example: it means you ...


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If a body (substance) has zero kinetic energy then we should suppose that it is a perfect crystal at absolute zero and all motion is in the vibrational ground state if it is a molecule. If an atomic solid then only zero point motion in the lattice. So yes it has a temperature. The potential energy is that within and between the molecules or atoms. In your ...


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The motion of N atoms in three dimensions (x,y,z) produces 3N degree of freedom. Every molecule also has whole body rotation (as the atoms are now bonded together) about each of the 3 axes and translational motion along each axis making 6 motions altogether. If the molecule is linear, rotation about the principal symmetry axis in not measurable so there ...


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Gas molecules move very fast and tend to mix more than they tend to settle due to gravity and density. Similar to what happens inside any bottle of liquor. Alcohol is lighter than water but it doesn't float on top, it stays mixed in. The water and the Alcohol mix naturally in part due to their shape and in larger part, due to their charges. Gases aren'...


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There are 4 vibrational modes in a molecule like CO2 like you are considering. These would be a symmetric stretch, an antisymmetric stretch, and 2 bends (just like your animations). In case of non linear molecules there is only one vibrational bend: Lets consider H2O. You might be tempted to think that the same argument of two bends should apply here, but on ...


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This is a more general answer. Atoms and molecules are quantum mechanical entities. This means that the "shape" of atoms depends on the solution of quantum mechanical equations, which give probabilities for locating in space the electrons that are bound to the nucleus of the atom with the electric potential provided by the protons of the nucleus. The ...


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The water molecule is neutral on overall basis, i.e: the water molecule as a whole has no net charge. The water molecule is not linear rather it has a bent shape with two hydrogens on the same side. This happens because of the lone-pair-bond-pair repulsions. The oxygen has is a more electronegative element than hydrogen, i.e: oxygen has high electron-...


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By definition an ideal gas is a gas composed by non-interacting point particles moving randomly. It is not meant to represent a real gas, but a simplification of a gas with more complex interactions, such as vibrations and rotations. For example, most real gases at room temperature can be approximated by an ideal gas, since only translational degrees of ...


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An ideal gas particle is considered to be a non-interacting point mass i.e. a zero-dimensional object. As such it has no internal degrees of freedom - it cannot rotate or vibrate. The only degrees of freedom it has are the three translational ones.



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