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2

You're slightly conflating MO formation with hybridisation. MO's form as an interaction between two Atomic Orbitals (AOs) and mathematically can be seen as the linear combination of two AOs. MOs can be formed when some conditions are met: 1. Symmetry and sufficient overlap: (a) formation of a $\sigma_{pp}$ bond. (b) formation of a $\sigma^*_{pp}$ anti-...


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The light-matter coupling Hamiltonian you have written is correct in general for a running-wave laser within the dipole approximation (and two-level approximation); it contains no assumption about the trap potential. In fact, it's not true that it connects only internal states. It also connects the motional states due to the $e^{i k \hat{Z}}$ term. This term ...


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I think the sound makes the particles move more because there's more interaction when the sound particles are included, but I'm probably wrong because I don't know much about physics...


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As regards the first question, if you read this article, it might make the difference between waves and particles clearer. Double Slit Experiment Can absolute zero stop the movement of electrons, or solid electrons like those described above? This is an exerpt from Wikipedia Absolute Zero The laws of thermodynamics dictate that absolute zero ...


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In a nutshell, yes. Think about Newton's gravity. Even you and I have some gravitational pull, even though it is tiny. The same is true for General Relativity. Even the tiniest of particles makes an indentation in the fabric of spacetime. Here's another analogy: think about a rubber sheet. This is spacetime. Now, imagine you put a bowling ball on that ...


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Several questions of this nature were asked the last days. An electron does not orbit the nucleus as a particle. In Quantum Mechanics the electron is represented by a wavefunction, which gives you the probability of measuring something about the electron. This probability is spherically symmetrical in the ground state of hydrogen, for example: it means you ...


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If a body (substance) has zero kinetic energy then we should suppose that it is a perfect crystal at absolute zero and all motion is in the vibrational ground state if it is a molecule. If an atomic solid then only zero point motion in the lattice. So yes it has a temperature. The potential energy is that within and between the molecules or atoms. In your ...


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The motion of N atoms in three dimensions (x,y,z) produces 3N degree of freedom. Every molecule also has whole body rotation (as the atoms are now bonded together) about each of the 3 axes and translational motion along each axis making 6 motions altogether. If the molecule is linear, rotation about the principal symmetry axis in not measurable so there ...



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