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You are right that the argumentation for the existence of ortho and para hydrogen is identical to that for the existence of ortho and para helium, that is, applying the permutation operator on a wave function for two identical particles should result in an eigenvalue of $+1$ or $-1$ if one considers bosons or fermions, respectively. Whereas in helium you ...


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A very obvious answer is just to heat the air enough (flame). You can also accelerate electrons with electric field and inject them into air (plasma needles and a lot of commercial and lab plasma setups). Microwaves can be used to create and sustain ionization (think of microwave plasma experiments). The same goes for other wavelengths that resonate with ...


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In the case of inorganic matter, such as metal sheets, folding/creasing produces a substantial bulk stress in the material which can modify the molecular structure in a large number of complex (and not fully understood) ways. For example, it can break bonds, cause amorphisation, and propagate dislocations. These same mechanisms are at play when you cut a ...


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What happens during folding is that the material undergoes plastic deformation. When a sheet of material is bent slightly that deformation is usually elastic, meaning it will return to its original shape when the deforming stress is withdrawn. But when the deformation is larger we enter the plastic zone: the material will no longer fully recover its ...



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