New answers tagged metrology
Now that I have a better understanding of what you're asking, I think a good candidate would be "quantity value", also known as the "value of a quantity", from p. 28 of the International Vocabulary of Metrology, Basic and General Concepts and Associated Terms (VIM) by the Joint Committee for Guides in Metrology, online in pdf form here. I found this linked ...
I don't see any reason not to suggest "scalar". Yes, the word is usually used to make a distinction vis a vis vectors and higher rank tensors, but it seems to be exactly applicable.
If you want to restrict the question to numerical quantities that have physical units, sometimes they are called "dimensionful quantities" in contrast to "dimensionless quantities" that have no units, see p. 6 of Introduction to Classical Mechanics by David Morin for an example of such usage.
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