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The counting is done by the signal generator. The clock contains a signal generator that generates the 9,192,631,770 Hz signal going to the microwave transmitter. This generator contains a counter that counts every cycle the generator creates (though as The Photon says it may use a prescaler).


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Nowadays it's reasonable to make an actual digital counter that operates at 10 GHz. Even so, you might rather use a prescaler to divide this frequency down to 1/4 or 1/8 of the microwave frequency before you actually start counting cycles. In olden times you might have generated your 10 GHz signal by multiplying up a lower frequency (maybe in the 100's of ...


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As David has mentioned, you are interpreting too much into the value 101'325 Pa. This is an average pressure which can change quite a lot depending on the weather. E.g. if you are in a low pressure system, the sea level pressure can be far bellow 100'000 Pa, If the local weather is a high pressure system, it will be much higher than 101'325 Pa. Of course ...



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