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Although there is already an accepted answer, I want to give some further ideas: While the Bragg-peak is the "perfect" solution to get a high percentage of effective dose to the desired tissue, the exact positioning of this peak in the tumor tissue can be challenging due to misalignments of CT/MRI data and the application gantry and furthermore due to ...


Some practical information first - the charged particle beam passing through the matter suffers from energy (and also angular) straggling. That means that even if an ideally monoenergetic beam is used, there will be always a finite volume with Bragg peak losses. The bigger initial energy, the bigger is the volume. Protons stopping at 40 mm have straggling ...


The dose that kills a tumor is deliberately aimed at that tumor. If, instead of using a collimated beam, you put a person in a wide beam for radio "therapy", you would be treating their entire body as a tumor and kill them. The dose in RT is computed locally - "this" part of the body (these grams of tissue) absorbed (were exposed to) "this many" Joules of ...


That is the lethal does to stop human bodily function if radiated into a vital organ or the entire body. Cells die at a much lower level of grays, so a lethal does of gray's is not necessary to kill a tumor.

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