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7

The goal of such a treatment is to induce damages in the cells of the tumor by mean of ionizing radiation. These radiations can be X-rays (photons), electron, proton or things like carbon ions. The problem is: if you try to irradiate a tumor, you first have to go through normal tissues and the risk is to damage them also. Photons will transfer energy ...


4

A remark up front: I am not a specialist on ultrasound. However, I am a Geophysicist and we use more or less the same principle to image the Earth's interior, just a very different frequency range compared to your problem at hand; in exploration seismics typically 5-100Hz compared to frequencies in the Megahertz range for ultrasound imaging. A transducer ...


4

I think the real answer is that when it comes to nanorobots, the materials we're using readily oxidise. Put them out of a vaccum and they're toast the instant they come into contact with the atomosphere. Biology manages to deal with this by using a different material set, and encapsulating everything pretty well so that the environment doesn't damage cell ...


2

Your description of the basal metabolic rate is spot on, and it is indeed equated with the amount of heat you give off. The way to look at this is yesterday I weighed 60kg and today I weigh 60kg, but in between I've consumed about 2,500 calories. That energy must have gone somewhere. Since I'm the same today as I was yesterday there's no net energy change ...


1

It looks to me like they mean J/cm^2 doesn't it - but they may well just be pulling numbers out of the air. To be electromagnetic flux is should be W/cm^2 - but it looks like a dosage is intended. 440J/treatment over 582cm^2 is 0.756J/cm^2 per treatment. But that just means that the little "j" does not mean what we think it does. AFAIK: there is no ...


1

There is no direct conversion for what you are asking. Curies are a measure of activity equal to $3.7 \cdot 10^7$ decays per second. Rad are a measure of absorbed dose equal to 1 Joule per kilogram. In order to determine how much radiation is received, you need to know things like the amount of time of exposure, distance between source and target, ...


1

I'm not sure the assumptions of your question are true. For example, in this picture, both the bones and the metal ring appear black. Can you link to examples of the white bones/black metal x-ray images you describe? There are ways to obtain contrast with x-rays that do not rely on absorption, such as scattering. However, I think most medical x-rays are ...



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