Mathematical physics is the application of mathematics to problems in physics and mathematical methods suitable for such applications, e.g., partial differential equations (PDEs), functional analysis, variational calculus, and potential theory. It also includes the study of problems inspired by physics within a mathematically rigorous framework, such as rigorous derivation of an atomic energy spectrum, rigorous construction of a quantum field theoretic model, and rigorous description of a phase transition.

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See also Wikipedia's article on mathematical physics.

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