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Although there are different types of "radiation," their common effect is to transfer some/most of their energy to the material they "hit," resulting in the breaking of the atomic bonds and or structures of the material. When "enough" bonds and/or structures are broken, the material will fail. Since the electrical characteristics of electronic components are ...


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The picture shows steady mass with low surface irregularities ($\approx$ 1.5 nm). The microscope resolution is about 500 nm and its slit size about 1-10 nm so deduced from that. The sample is amorphous so no magnotocrystalline anisotropy.


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Game engines typically do approximations that may or may not relate in anyway to reality. For example CORs typically reduce with increasing velocity, but that's typically left out of games. I've seen game engines just take an unweighted average CORs of two impacting objects. A physically more realistic approach would be to do a weight the average of the CORs ...


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Google brought me here. It failed to answer my question. I might be able to add a good two cents here. Not for nothing but all jeans are stretch jeans because they are cut on the bias/diagonal. They would be stiff if cut like the average dress shirt or slacks. Denim leggings with 3% spandex are much stretchier than heavy denim jeans with 5% spandex. ...


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Let us take the example of the Hubble primary mirror. It has a diameter of 2.4 m and a mass of 828 kg. It is actually made in a sandwich structure - glass-honeycomb-glass - making it about 30 cm thick (for stiffness) but light. The mirror is coated with an aluminum coating of thickness t = 65 nm, with a 25 nm MgF2 protective coating on top. Coefficient of ...


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As water freezes, zones of ice and zones of water form. On the scale of a bubble, the interface might well be a plane. As the water cools, dissolved gasses form bubbles. A bubble can be engulfed as the interface advances past it. As ice freezes more gas comes out of solution. The bubble grows. The part that has been engulfed cannot expand. So the bubble ...


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If I see this correctly the vertical bubbles seem to be at the top. My guess is that the bubbles were at the top and only surface tension kept the air from being released, when the temperature cooled this surface tension could have been disturbed and the air may have started to escape; this would cause the water to close in from the sides of the bubble but ...


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You can break the plate open and look inside, is the simplest answer. If you know the acoustic properties of melamine you can probe the plate with sonar. Or you could use x-rays (or another more appropriate wavelength) to image through the plate and look for a material change. If you know the density of the melamine you could do Archimedes' test, comparing ...


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Oldest known solution: measure its density and see if it agrees with the density of melamine. Indirect measurements increase accuracy as described on the following page: http://www.math.nyu.edu/~crorres/Archimedes/Crown/CrownIntro.html


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This is more chemistry than physics... The color of a material is due to an interaction of the light with chemical bonds (usually double bonds) in the dye. The UV component of sunlight tends to knock electrons out of double bonds and can in time cause changes to the chemical composition which we experience as bleaching. For a more thorough and ...



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