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20

As you have expected, there is no sharp divide between the groups. The divide is man made. Since all conductors have some resistance, (except superconductors - follow this link to find out more) and all insulators will conduct some current if they are forced to, this means there is no absolute dividing line between conductors and insulators. Since ...


8

Another way of distinguishing conductors and non-conductors or insulators is with band gap - for good conductors the fermi level of electrons is inside a band - semiconductors have a small band gap and good insulators have large band gaps... Electrons in solids lie in energy bands, whereas in atoms and molecules they have generally sharp levels. If you ...


5

I'd like to point out the example of cast iron. It is renowned for its excellent vibration-damping properties. It is wrong to reach a blanket conclusion saying that metals are bad for vibration damping. The properties of any solid depends part on the material it is made up of and part on the micro-structure of the material. By micro-structure, I mean the ...


3

Damping implies a loss mechanism. In liquids, where molecules move freely in close proximity, this loss mechanism is a transfer of momentum from one molecule to another. In pure crystalline metals, the position of atoms in the lattice is fixed, and the forces between them are elastic. That is, if an atom is displaced, it will experience a force that puts it ...


3

I have a lot of experience with CVD and sputtering, but limited experience in PLD; however, several of my colleagues did this all the time in our shared a laser lab. When they were attempting to reproduce a specific result all of the parameters had to be systematically varied, from the laser fluence to the substrate conditioning and temperature, and more. ...


3

The elongation, or shortening of the materials with temperature depends on the coefficient of linear thermal expansion of the material with which it is made (here: gold) $$\alpha = \frac{1}{L}\frac{dL}{dT}$$ Integrating, $$L = L_0\ e^{\alpha\Delta T}$$ $$L \approx L_0(1+\alpha\Delta T)$$ In your case, $L$ = circumference. Change in radius will be given by: ...


3

At least a part of this comes from understanding where the stress-strain curve comes from. Normally from a physics background we think of applying a force to a sample and seeing how it responds. Instead, experimental results like what you show are done differently in materials science - the sample is mounted in the testing machine (Instron for example), and ...


2

short answer no longer answer it depends on what you mean by survive. The exposure to the intense heat is going to melt anything that is small enough to "tape to a Tsar-Bomba-yield nuclear warhead" the temperatures of fission reactions are used to induce fusion temperatures they are going to far exceed any threshold for a small piece of material and the ...


2

I have no experience with either CVD or PLD, but it was interesting to think about this question. In a humble attempt to build on Peter Diehr's answer, here is some theory (at a very heuristic and simplified level). The deposition of each new layer can be thought of as being governed at large scales by some mixture of Laplacian and Eden growth in two ...


2

Yes. Is this a useful method in practice to increase the strength to weight ratio of a cable? No, except possibly with the use of superconductors (copper would melt before contributing as much tensile strength as a cable of the same weight).


1

You can drill a hole with a water jet, or compressed air, or even with light; I've done all of these. Feathers may be a challenge, but with enough feathers, and enough force, you can wear away the wall. A dent is a deformation of the surface; if examined before and after with an AFM, you might be able to find a dent by strain measurements.


1

An empirical answer: Metals (often copper) can be used as insulating support structures in superconducting magnets. Compared to ~0 resistivity of the coil, the resistivity of metals makes for very good insulating properties! Or, going in the other direction, a 50-watt VandeGraaff-type power supply may output 500KV at 100uA. Such a supply has an internal ...


1

To understand this, use the definition of force $\frac{d{\bf p}}{dt} = {\bf F}$, namely the force is equal to the rate of change of momentum. Something like a collision can be very complicated to model, but the average force is approximately given by ${\bf F}_{average} = \frac{\text{change in momentum}}{\text{time taken}}$. Typically, in a collision, the ...


1

Metals are not liquids (I am referring to metals which are in solid phase in standard conditions of pressure and temperature) and have no viscous mechanical dissipation on time scales associated with most mechanical vibrations. This implies that they can transmit transverse waves contrary to fluids. How efficiently they can do so is related to the details of ...


1

One has to think about what happens in the explosion. In a conventional explosion, a chemical reaction creates a whole lot of hot gas - that volume is initially contained inertially, and it expands as a shock wave travels outward. Any object on the boundary will experience a larger thermal and pressure gradient; the pressure and flow of matter behind the ...


1

While their momenta would be the same the bullet is going to have way more kinetic energy and so do more damage.



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