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Let us take the example of the Hubble primary mirror. It has a diameter of 2.4 m and a mass of 828 kg. It is actually made in a sandwich structure - glass-honeycomb-glass - making it about 30 cm thick (for stiffness) but light. The mirror is coated with an aluminum coating of thickness t = 65 nm, with a 25 nm MgF2 protective coating on top. Coefficient of ...


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Although there are different types of "radiation," their common effect is to transfer some/most of their energy to the material they "hit," resulting in the breaking of the atomic bonds and or structures of the material. When "enough" bonds and/or structures are broken, the material will fail. Since the electrical characteristics of electronic components are ...


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Unfortunately, there is no hard and fast set of rules for superconductivity yet. The elemental superconductors and several of the metallic alloys seem to follow a set of rules whereas the high Tc cuprate compounds follow a different set of rules. The latest family of superconductors namely the Oxy-Iron- Pnictides/Chalcogenides meet an altogether different ...


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This is more chemistry than physics... The color of a material is due to an interaction of the light with chemical bonds (usually double bonds) in the dye. The UV component of sunlight tends to knock electrons out of double bonds and can in time cause changes to the chemical composition which we experience as bleaching. For a more thorough and ...


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If I see this correctly the vertical bubbles seem to be at the top. My guess is that the bubbles were at the top and only surface tension kept the air from being released, when the temperature cooled this surface tension could have been disturbed and the air may have started to escape; this would cause the water to close in from the sides of the bubble but ...


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As water freezes, zones of ice and zones of water form. On the scale of a bubble, the interface might well be a plane. As the water cools, dissolved gasses form bubbles. A bubble can be engulfed as the interface advances past it. As ice freezes more gas comes out of solution. The bubble grows. The part that has been engulfed cannot expand. So the bubble ...



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