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1) Universal covering groups are groups with the property of being simply connected. Each algebra has a unique covering group. The other groups, $\{G\}$, associated to the same algebra can be obtained from the covering group in the following way $$G=\frac{\tilde G}{Ker(\rho)},$$ where $Ker(\rho)$ is the kernel of the group homomorphism $\rho:\tilde ...


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In order for a theory to present stable monopole solutions it has to satisfy three requirements: i) It has to have the topological conditions, generally showed as non trivial second homotopy group of the vacuum manifold. ii) It has to satisfy a quantization condition $$e^{ieQ_m}=\mathbb 1,$$ where $Q_m$ is the (non-Abelian) magnetic charge. This is a ...



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