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1

Relative to the normal $N_s$ of the plane, $\Phi$ goes from $-S$ (reaching the sky horizon) to $+\pi/2$ (when it is parallel to the plane. Further, it would be on the back side of the plane, which must not count).


2

Thunder is a sonic boom, generated by the rapid heating of the atmosphere by the lightning discharge. The heat front moves faster than sound, generating the sonic boom. Thus what you hear is a pressure wave, and it can be carried by plasma, gas, liquid, or solid: by all of the states of matter.


1

This stuff is confusing, but you have it about right. Irradiance is $\Phi / A$ if the flux is constant over the area, which usually means that $A$ is small compared to $d^2$. Note that the total flux within the cone is the same wherever you choose to measure it. The irradiance at the surface $dA$ is $\Phi / dA$, and the irradiance at the surface $A_0$ is ...


0

The weapon you are suggesting is similar to one where a laser pulse ionizes the air to the target and channels a high voltage high current charge to the target. It requires extremely high power laser pulses in the femtosecond region. The name of the tech is Electrolaser


-1

This weapon exists and is commercially available. The amount of heat discharged is minimal, but it's excellent at disrupting electrical oscillators like hearts and low-current electrical pathways like nerves.


1

It basically conducts electricity the same way salty water does: both contain some concentration of charged particles that are free to move. Water contains some concentrations of ions and protons (H$^+$ protons). When there is a voltage difference, the ions will move according to their charge. The hot gas of the flame contains positively charged ions and ...


0

I calculated it.As you may know it is because of different resistance that building and conductor have. what your teacher said is true but not effective really.



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