New answers tagged lightning
Relative to the normal $N_s$ of the plane, $\Phi$ goes from $-S$ (reaching the sky horizon) to $+\pi/2$ (when it is parallel to the plane. Further, it would be on the back side of the plane, which must not count).
Thunder is a sonic boom, generated by the rapid heating of the atmosphere by the lightning discharge. The heat front moves faster than sound, generating the sonic boom. Thus what you hear is a pressure wave, and it can be carried by plasma, gas, liquid, or solid: by all of the states of matter.
This stuff is confusing, but you have it about right. Irradiance is $\Phi / A$ if the flux is constant over the area, which usually means that $A$ is small compared to $d^2$. Note that the total flux within the cone is the same wherever you choose to measure it. The irradiance at the surface $dA$ is $\Phi / dA$, and the irradiance at the surface $A_0$ is ...
The weapon you are suggesting is similar to one where a laser pulse ionizes the air to the target and channels a high voltage high current charge to the target. It requires extremely high power laser pulses in the femtosecond region. The name of the tech is Electrolaser
This weapon exists and is commercially available. The amount of heat discharged is minimal, but it's excellent at disrupting electrical oscillators like hearts and low-current electrical pathways like nerves.
It basically conducts electricity the same way salty water does: both contain some concentration of charged particles that are free to move. Water contains some concentrations of ions and protons (H$^+$ protons). When there is a voltage difference, the ions will move according to their charge. The hot gas of the flame contains positively charged ions and ...
I calculated it.As you may know it is because of different resistance that building and conductor have. what your teacher said is true but not effective really.
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