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A spin-half on a lattice site is a theoretical 'particle' with the property of having a spin of one half. It can be either 'up' or 'down' along the measuring-axis (in most textbooks the spin operator for assigning spin up-or down is the $\sigma_z$ operator, the third Pauli matrix. You could also use the $\sigma_x$ or $\sigma_y$. I believe the spin on a site ...


The spin referred in condensed matter is the spin of the electrons least bound to the atoms (usually valance electrons). The atoms reside on the lattice sites. A spin half problem means the atoms have only one valance electron. But there are other possibilities like spin 1, 3/2 and all. As qeb has already mentioned it can also be used for nuclear spins also. ...

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