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Your picture is ok, so long as you realise that this is a snapshot in time. If you looked "from above" the electric field of the waves (by your definition of the polarisation direction) would be pointing towards or away from you - so this becomes rather difficult to draw in the same way. It might be better to think of the E-field as a field of arrows, ...


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Pauli found his principle first for electrons states in an atom. Call it the strong principle, for the lowest atomic orbitals and under "normal" temperature and other energetic circumstances it describes a natural law. It was found out too that in metals the free electrons have a broad range of energy levels. Thats allow them to be in different distances ...


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There is also optgeo, quite simple, but could be useful in your case, you can drag and drop lenses, mirrors, beamsplitters etc. It is free software: http://jeanmarie.biansan.free.fr/optgeo.html It is also in the ubuntu and debian repositorys.


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I already wrote elsewhere that Gaussian beams are just some approximations to solutions of the Maxwell equations. For this reason, I derived some exact solutions of the Maxwell equations that are approximated by Gaussian beams extremely well ("asymptotically accurately") when the beam waist is much larger than the wavelength. Please see ...


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I've come to the conclusion that the language used in the paper is probably not completely accurate. The paper mentions determining displacement based on "reflection time." I believe that the device actually uses trigonometry and the angle formed by the bounced laser beam to determine the displacement of the torsion pendulum. The angle is measured using a ...


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Can you cite the paper, please? Assuming that it's a modern version of an old experiment, my first guess would be, that the observation uses the fact that the light will induce a constant moment on the torsion pendulum. The response of the pendulum will be an oscillatory motion, for short amounts of time (seconds to minutes), that motion around the original ...


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The problem with using the actual free space Fourier propagator is aliasing. I learned this through trial and error as well, after a few wavelengths the numerical model really begins to behave poorly, probably due to aliasing and roundoff error. The Fresnel approximation actually does a better job if you are anywhere further than the very near field ...


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Typically, the 3rd level has a long lifetime compared w/ the 4th level. For various reasons related to this lifetime, it's harder to pump directly up to that level (long lifetime generally means smaller probability of up-pumping as well as emission). The 4th level is chosen for its very short lifetime, decaying quickly to the 3rd level. This lets the ...


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I am assuming that you are asking how to reproduce an interference pattern: The total electric field distribution anywhere in a multimode fiber is a superposition of contributions from the different modes. The intensity profile depends not only on the optical powers in all the modes, but also on the relative phases, and there can be constructive or ...


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If you look at this table of specific heat capacities, metals are not so high in J/gK. Aluminum is a little less than air and 1/4 of water or ammonia. Other metals are much lower. The energy required does not depend on the rate. The power required does, as it is energy divided by time. Lasers are one way to deliver energy, but for heating all you care ...



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