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The current cosmological model, lovingly called "the big bang", assumes that the universe went from a very hot, very dense state to the currently observed state of low density and low temperature. So far everything that we have learned about physics tells us that this cooling process was fairly "smooth", with exception of a very rapid early phase that is ...


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There are different layers of reconstruction, at each step the amount of data is reduced with the goal of inferring the momenta, type and direction of the particles produced first in the collision: pulse shape reconstruction: the electronic signals caused by particles interacting with the detector cells are digitized at a rate of 40 MHz at LHC. Some ...


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There experiment which has measured the most stringent limit on neutron to anti-neutron oscillations (i.e. produce neutrons, let them fly for some time and then look if you find anti-neutrons) has used a 130 micrometer thick and 110 cm diameter carbon foil. This target had a probability greater than 99% for anti-neutrons to interact (and thus produce ...


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Detectors at particle colliders are layered like onions around the collision vertex. The CMS detector at CERN First there are charged particle sensitive detectors where charged particles leave tracks because of ionisation, but mass density is low so strong interactions do not happen often; their momentum can be measured by the curvature in the ...



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