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Background Generally, all phase transitions require some input energy in order for the transition to occur. For instance, the transition from solid-to-liquid or vice versa requires what is called the enthalpy of fusion or latent heat of fusion. This is the amount of energy needed to change the total interal energy (i.e., enthalpy) of a substance in order ...


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It depends on what one defines as an ideal gas. In the physics literature, an ideal gas is defined as one which has constant heat capacity from absolute zero all the way up to the temperature T. In the engineering literature, we consider an ideal gas to have temperature-dependent heat capacity, just as real gases do at low pressures. In both cases, the ...


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The answer to your query is Equipartition of Energy. Equipartition Theorem: At temperature $T\,_,$ the average energy of any quadratic degree of freedom is $\frac{1}{2} kT\;.$ For each degree of freedom, the ideal gas molecule can store $\frac12 kT$ of energy on average. For monatomic ideal gas molecule, there are only three degrees of freedom: ...


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It depends on gas whether its monoatomic diatomic nonrigid ,rigid as $\alpha$ is degree off freedom which depends on gas for mono it s $3/2$


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These answers are way too complicated. It's not rocket science. When a charged particle moves it creates electromagnetic radiation. Matter is made of charged particles. Since everything not at absolute zero is moving around and everything is made of charged particles you're gonna get a spectrum of EM radiation coming off matter. If the thing is ...


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Phase changes depend not only on temperature but also pressure. Like any substance, if you get the right combo of pressure and temperature you can keep it at a solid, liquid or gas or if you're really good keep it at the triple point and get all three phases in equilibrium with each other. For C02, the liquid phase is very likely outside of most temperature ...


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The parameter which is important is the average kinetic energy of the molecules. When the two gases mix they will move to a state where the average kinetic energy of all the molecules is the same. So go for something like the total kinetic energy before mixing is equal to the total kinetic energy after mixing which will be made easier by having a 1:1 ...


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For both hydrogen and chlorine E = 3/2 kT is only true at very low temperatures since they are diatomic gases. In general you get a contribution of 1/2 kT to the energy for every quadratic degree of freedom. For a monatomic gas that is 3 translational degrees of freedom, hence 3*1/2 kT. For a diatomic gas there are in addition 2 rotational, 1 vibrational ...


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the collision sets the time scale over which the particle can travel freely on average. Based on this picture, semiclassical, you can use the relation you quoted to calculate the Diffusion constant.


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Disclaimer The following answer is largely taken from the arXiv paper with e-print number 1512.04015 by Treumann and Baumjohann (from here on I abbreviate references to this paper as TB15). Background It is well known that the Maxwell-J├╝ttner distribution works well for a momentum/energy distribution with an isotropic, scalar temperature, $T$. This ...


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The values presented in the bar chart aren't really energies, they are changes in energy. Using the frame of reference shown ($y$-axis) the kinetic ($K$) and potential ($U$) energies at point 1 are: $$K_1=0$$ $$U_1=mgy$$ Assuming no friction or air-drag acts on the car, then Conservation of Energy applies, so: $$K+U=\text{constant}=mgy$$ When the car ...


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Very interesting question. As you wrote yourself in your Edit it is hard to describe water via the ideal gas model. You have to introduce at least two important improvements of your ideal gas: Dipole - Dipole - Interaction instead of no interaction. Let's call this pair potential $V_d$ and note that for two given molecules $V_d$ is not only distance but ...


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Warmer water doesn't sink at any temperatur unless it is an iceberg and the coldest water floats. Vibrating atoms tend to move to slower moving atoms evening out. Vortexes could from the temperature change in the pot or in the ocean only then may you see warmer water lower than cold water in a continuous flow.



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