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Rubber consists of many long-chain polymers. In an unstressed sample, these are randomly arranged. As a mental model think of them as anchor chains, where the angle between each link is entirely random - the overall polymer is in essence a random walk through the medium. Now, you pull on it. The net result is to better align the backbone of the polymer ...


A system is a set of interacting or interdependent components that act as a whole, and the system's boundary delineates the system from its surroundings or environment in which it exists. Wikipedia offers a good definition here. If I'm understanding your question, you are asking whether objects, defined by their energy states, can be considered a system. ...


Excludes the system as a whole means you disregard the kinetic energy associated with the translation or rotation of the body as a whole. For instance that associated with the center of mass motion. In case of internal energy you focus on the interior, like motion due to the atoms and molecules of which the object is made up of.

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