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Robert Griffiths is quite fond of Mach-Zehnder experiments as useful windows into interpreting quantum foundations, and he presents calculations for some toy models of M-Z interferometers in Chapter 13 of his book, Consistent Quantum Theory. As a caution, most of this book is written to parallel the consistent quantum histories formulation of quantum ...

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Mike's answer is good but there Is more. You can actually see it in the papaer he referred you to, it is an excellent paper. It not only describes the possible sources, but it points to the new physics that it might see. eLisa, also called NGO, will be sensitive to gravitational waves from the early universe (and after), down to 10 to the minus 18 sec after ...

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Space is, as you say, good for removing a lot of the background noise that spoils LIGO's data — like seismic noise, disturbances from traffic and logging activity, people shooting at the beam tubes, etc. But another important reason to go into space is so that you can basically make a much larger version of LIGO. LIGO's arms are 4km long; eLISA's arms will ...

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Hanbury Brown and Twiss effect is the correlation between intensities measured simultaneously by independent detectors. It was first used with radio astronomy, and after Twiss provided the mathematics for the quantum optical theory, it was applied to light. Thus there are two ways to make stellar interferometers, the first by means of classical ...

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I am not sure that this is the best method but it is the only one I can think of. Find a location of minium ($0$) visibility (which is easy to detect) [1]. Looking at the center of the intensity distribution, move one the mirrors to until you reach the next location of minium ($0$) visibility. When moving the mirrors count the number $n$ of minium is ...

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