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The current doesnt pass through the voltmeter so the the resistance of load R is not affected.


Because the sound is slowed down (or likewise sped up) only in the direction of flow. So in order to subtract (or add) the speed of sound and the speed of the media, both quantities need to be in the same direction. The cosine gives you the component of sound velocity in the flow direction. BTW time of flight is only one part of the equation to determine ...

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