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1) Suppose that you have two configurations (here I've used Coulomb gauge with euclidean time $\tau$): $$ \tag 0 A_{i}(x) = \begin{cases} 0 = U^{(0)}\partial_{i}(U^{(0)})^{-1}, \quad \tau = -\infty \\ U^{(1)}\partial_{i}(U^{(1)})^{-1}, \quad \tau = \infty\end{cases} $$ Such situation describes tunneling between vacua with topological charges $0$ and $1$. ...



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