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15

These are all good questions. Perhaps I can answer a few of them at once. The equation describing the violation of current conservation is $$\partial^\mu j_\mu=f(g)\epsilon^{\mu\nu\rho\sigma}F_{\mu\nu}F_{\rho\sigma}$$ where f(g) is some function of the coupling constant. It is not possible to write any other candidate answer by dimensional analysis and ...

8

The easiest way to see imaginary time used is in elementary quantum mechanics in one dimension. (This is the explanation cribbed from wikipedia). Suppose we're looking at a tunneling-through-a-barrier problem. We start with the Schrodinger equation: $$-\frac{\hbar^2}{2m}\frac{d^2\psi(x)}{dx^2}+V(x)\psi(x) = E\psi(x)$$ Make the ansatz $$\psi(x) ... 4 I will add to twistor59 answer. Hawking liked the concept of imaginary time \tau=\mathrm{i}t because it transforms a Lorentzian metric$$ds^2 = -c^2 dt^2 + dx^2 + dy^2 + dz^2$$into a four dimensional like Euclidean metric$$ds^2 = +c^2 d\tau^2 + dx^2 + dy^2 + dz^2$$Hawking and others believed that a quantum gravity theory could be developed in this ... 4 I) This is discussed around eq. (23.7.1) on p. 462 in Ref. 1. The task is to perform the path integral$$\tag{1} \int_{BC} [d\phi]e^{\frac{i}{\hbar}S[\phi]} ~=~\sum_{\nu}\int\! du \int_{BC_0} [d\phi_q]e^{\frac{i}{\hbar}S[\phi_{cl}+\phi_{\nu,u}+\phi_q]} $$over fields \phi with some (possible inhomogeneous) boundary conditions BC. This is done by ... 4 The reason why classical solutions add a "lot" to the path integral is that their action (phase) is stationary i.e. almost the same phase as the action (phase) in their reasonably large vicinity of the configuration space; one gets positive interference as a consequence. More generic paths cancel with the adjacent ones whose phases are different and random. ... 4 For the pure e.g. d=4 gauge theory instanton and gauge field perturbations around it, there is no negative mode – the counterpart of the bound state. It's the only one among the 3 classes that is absent here. One may see this absence by noticing that the gauge theory may be embedded into a supersymmetric theory with the same gauge-field degrees of ... 3 Instanton calculations involve integrals over collective coordinates. One of these is the instanton size \rho. Reliable instanton calculations are those for which the integral over instanton sizes is dominated by small sizes so that (for asymptotically free theories) the coupling constant is small and higher order corrections in the semi-classical ... 3 Yes, you can recover the Seiberg-Witten prepotential from the Darboux coordinates X_\gamma (and indeed also from their "semiflat" versions X_\gamma^{sf}). The reason is the asymptotic property X_\gamma \sim exp(\pi R Z_\gamma / \zeta) as \zeta \rightarrow 0 (up to a \zeta-independent constant). Thus knowing X_\gamma is sufficient to recover ... 3 Fermionic zero modes on an instanton background are in one-to-one correspondence with solutions to the Dirac equation$$(i D_\mu \gamma^\mu - m)\Psi = 0$$where the partial derivative D_\mu contains the gauge field term with the gauge field defining the instanton solution substituted into it. We want to study these solutions in the Euclidean spacetime. ... 3 This is apparently too long for a comment, so it's going to be fleshed out into at least (hopefully) a partial answer. A big problem I see with this is determining which theories can live in the same universe. In this way, I think Liang Kong's Mathematical Theory of Anyon Condensation provides a way forward. To reconstruct your set up: Consider three ... 2 I) Vanishing field-strength F=0 does not imply that the gauge potential A is pure gauge. It only holds locally. There could be global obstructions. In fact, topological obstructions could happen even if the gauge group G is Abelian. II) Let us sketched the proof of the local statement in a sufficiently small neighborhood \Omega\subseteq M of a point ... 1 I think the path-integral is a complete red herring here! I'll try to convince you that Wick rotation yields completely equivalent way of writing the Lagrangian in classical field theory. Consider a classical action$$S[x] = \int L[x(t)] dt$$where x:\mathbb{R} \to \mathcal{M} for some target manifold \mathcal{M}. The Lagrangian is schematically given ... 1 The usefulness of Wick rotation lies in the convergence properties of the path integral. If you look at the integrand of the path integral in Minkowski space,$$\int\mathcal{D}\phi\;e^{iS_M}, you can see that it is an oscillating function. The integral of an oscillating function can in general be considered problematic. Wick rotation, which is ...

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TO have an instanton solution, you need to map the (euclideanized) "spacetime at infinity" to the group manifold. In the case of SU(2), both the spacetime at infinity and the group manifold are $S^3$ and instantons are characterized by the integers. I hope you understand that much, at least for SU(2). If you're interested in 4d instantons, they are ...

1

Let'me just sketch an idea to inroduce "imaginary time" . A photon in a black hole or in a singularity, has to disappear, it is energy should be 0. If that photon had a previous existence, the black hole has to distruct its energy: $E, A$, or its energy $a+a-=\left(N+\frac12\right)h\nu$ The simplest way is to consider the phase factor of the ...

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