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Yes, in general it affects the current, in particular if that current was going to change, the self inductance $L$ makes it change less quickly than it otherwise would change. Here are some examples: You could put a resistive loop inside a solenoid as a good example. The total $\vec{B}$ field is the $\vec{B}$ field due to the solenoid $\vec{B}_1(t)$, and ...


Here the use of DC in your question is a bad choice. DC does not imply constant current, it means that the current have same polarity in a period that we refer to. So you would like to use steady state in your question. That said, in steady state the the current is not changing with respect to time so the flux is not changing and hence there is no emf. But ...


At $t=0$ in an LR circuit, the current is zero because at $t=0$ the inductor opposes the current. It becomes itself like an opposing battery.


What you describe essentially happens in superconductors. There "perpetual electricity" exists in the form of super currents. In normal inductors, though, the resistance of the conductor steadily dissipates the current leading to field collapse.


The induced currents flow in opposite directions depending on whether the field is expanding or collapsing.


The energy stored in a field is the energy required to create it. In your case of the inductor there is no field when no EMF is applied. When we apply an EMF a current flows and does work, and the work goes into creating the field. When we talk about the energy of e.g. a charge in an electrostatic field, we normally assume the charge is small enough that ...

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