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ice is less denser than water because in ice the molecules arrange themselves in a rigid tetrahedral structure due to which cage like spaces remain in their bonding. But water molecules remain in linear bonding form. As the volume of ice becomes greater, it is less denser.


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In thermodynamic equilibrium, the solidification process can be tracked using the phase diagram of water and salt. One example (from wikipedia) is: It is fairly straightforward as a binary phase diagram. Above 0C, adding NaCl to water results in complete dissolution until somewhere above 26.3 wt.%. At that point, trying to stir more in will result in ...


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It's because normal ice, ice Ih, is less dense than liquid water. Ice Ih forms hexagonal crystals. The bonds in that crystalline structure make the water molecules slightly further apart than they are in the liquid form at the same pressure. That water expands on freezing makes water resist freezing as pressure increases. This in turn makes the fusion point ...



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