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From the diagrams on the webpages you linked, it appears that other ice phases begin to form at around 200 MPa of pressure, and about $-20\text{C}^{\circ}$. Keep in mind normal water freezes at $0\text{C}^{\circ}$, and air pressure at sea level is around 0.101MPa. That means an ice cube made of one of these phases would sublimate or explode very quickly. If ...

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As you can see from the phase diagram plot in the first link you provided, the only other ice phase which is stable at atmospheric pressure is ice XI, and its density is about the same as that of the most familiar ice phase (ice Ih). The other denser ice phases that you see on the phase diagram are only stable at pressures significantly above 1 atmosphere. ...

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The size/shape of the container holding the liquid to be cooled has some bearing on the question. A thin sheet of ice has lots of surface area, but could interfere with convection bringing warm liquid in to mix with already-cooled liquid. Whether this is relevant at all depends on factors like whether you're cooling a lot of liquid by only a degree or two, ...

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The more surface area, the more heat transfer. Ideally you'd use a single-molecule sheet, but that's impractical. Practically, using crushed ice is very simple and very effective. You could also freeze water inside drinking straws or on baking sheets to achieve high area-to-volume ratios.

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No, salt water does not (in that situation) seem to melt slower. In more detail: When you freeze the water, you make ice. When you freeze salt water, you make ice, and (depending on details a bit) either concentrated brine or ice and salt crystals. There is no (or very little) salt in the ice, it separates out into brine or salt. OK? Then, if you ...

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General principles You should probably just run the experiment over the weekend, but here are the relevant bits of physics: Typically, saltwater freezes at a lower temperature, so you will probably reach a point where your freezer no longer fully changes the state of the water to solid. You probably want the freezing to happen no matter what. The reason ...

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By shifting the melting point to a colder temperature, the surface of your salt water/ice will be below $0C$. Assuming the environment is warmer than that, the temperature difference will be greater with the salt water ice bottle than the pure water ice. This implies greater heat transfer and faster melting. If you want it to melt more slowly, the simple ...

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