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In order for water to boil, it must become a vapor. Bubbles rising from boiling water contain water molecules that have enough kinetic energy to separate themselves from the less-energetic liquid molecules that remain in the liquid state. It's easier for vapor to form in a low pressure environment because there is less total kinetic energy outside the ...


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The required change in pressure for a change in melting point can be found from the phase diagram of water. The typical variations in atmospheric pressure are negligible, just as you neglect the additional water pressure experienced in the lower parts of the ice bath. I will leave it up to you to find the factor involved - it is the slope of the water/ice ...


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My educated guess is that a large block of ice, delivered to space somehow, would last quite a while. If we assume it is in Earth orbit, the side facing the sun would sublimate (go directly from solid to gas) and dissipate. The rate of sublimination would depend on the insolation (power per unit area), which is about 400 $W/m^2$ and the absorption ...


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The truck has to call the tow company as part of their breakdown policy. Even if it means you have both vehicles stuck. I've observed that stupidity first hand. There's no magic in the tow truck, but likely the driver will have experience of getting out of the situation.


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The answer is "it depends." Here are some of the factors on which it depends: The thickness of the ice. Ice is a mediocre conductor of heat, about the same as rock. A thick layer of ice somewhat insulates the upper surface of the ice from the ~0 °C water just below the ice. A thin layer of ice, the ice will be at ~0 °C. The average wind speed. Thermal ...


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You would not have ice (at atmospheric pressure) if the temperature was about 0°C. In your situation, the top of the ice is at -10°C and the bottom of the ice is at 0°C. Also, since there is very little water circulation, the bottom of the lake can be over 4°C.



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