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The main fusion reaction in the sun is the proton-proton chain reaction, which takes six protons and produces two protons, one alpha particle, two anti-electrons, and two electron neutrinos. The deuterium nucleus is only barely bound and can be destroyed — dissociated into a proton and neutron — by absorbing a gamma ray with energy more than 2 MeV. This ...


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You say: The Coulomb potential comes from classical electrodynamics but actually the Coulomb potential is predicted by quantum electrodynamics as a low energy limit. Quantum field theory describes the interactions between charged particles as the exchange of virtual particles, and it's not immediately obvious that it would lead to an inverse square ...


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Is the Coulomb potential also used to solve the hydrogen atom in relativistic quantum mechanics? Yes, the Coulomb potential is there in the solution of the hydrogen atom with the Dirac equation, which is formulated in the relativistic framework. Now it is time to specialize to the hydrogen atom for which $$\frac{V}{\hbar c}=-\frac{Z\alpha}{r}$$ ...


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No, it is an approach called semiclassical quantum Mechanics. They mix the Schrödinger equation in which quantum particles interact with the classical potentials, to see what the calculations does. And it happens that it gives good results. So even if flawed, it is still predictive enough to be considered good. For instance, it predicts the fine structure of ...


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Because, the material particle disappears and becomes a wave (energy), and reappears as a particle, since the electron, like the light, has a double identity, particle and wave.


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The "rotating particle" picture does not work for $L=0$, unfortunately. Both the electron and the nucleus are waves who create a standing spherically symmetric wave of their relative motion.



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