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19

There is a rigorous formal analysis which lets you do this. The true problem, of course allows both the proton and the electron to move. The corresponding Schrödinger equation thus has the coordinates of both as variables. To simplify things, one usually transforms those variables to the relative separation and the centre-of-mass position. It turns out that ...


12

I assume you're talking of the hydrogen atom; the hamiltonian of the nucleus + electron system is $$ H = \frac{p_e^2}{2 m _e} + \frac{p_n^2}{2 m _n} - \frac{e^2}{|r_e - r_n|}. $$ You can do a change of coordinates (center of mass coordinates) $$ \vec{R} = \frac{m_e \vec{r}_e + m_n \vec{r}_n}{m_e+m_n} \\ \vec{r} = r_e -r_n $$ and find the conjugate momenta to ...


10

Bohr postulated that electrons orbit the nucleus in discrete energy levels, and electrons can gain and lose energy by jumping between energy levels, giving off radiation of frequency $\nu$ according to the formula $\Delta E = E_2 - E_1 = h\nu$ where $\nu = \frac{1}{T}$, where T is the period of orbit, as in classical mechanics. Now during the transition, ...


10

In a neutral hydrogen atom the ground state has the electron and proton spins anti-parallel i.e. lined up with each other but pointing in opposite directions. The state with the spins parallel and pointing in the same direction has a slightly higher energy, and transitions between these two states produce the notorious 21cm hydrogen line. Since the ...


9

The Hamiltonian for the hydrogen atom $$ H = \frac{\mathbf{p}^2}{2m} - \frac{k}{r} $$ describes an electron in a central $1/r$ potential. This has the same form as the Kepler problem, and the symmetries are similar. There is an obvious $SO(3)$ generated by the angular momentum $\mathbf{L} = \mathbf{r} \times \mathbf{p}$. In other words, the components of ...


8

The degeneracy of energy-levels can be traced to the fact that the hydrogen atom possesses an enhanced $SO(4)$ symmetry caused by (among other things) the conservation of the Laplace-Runge-Lenz vector operator, see e.g. this Phys.SE post and Ref. 1. References: G. 't Hooft, Introduction to Lie Groups in Physics, lecture notes, chapter 9. The pdf file is ...


7

The problem with attempting to fuse two protons is that there is no bound state $^2$He, for the rather obvious reason that there are no neutrons present to hold the two protons together. The fusion of two protons requires one of them to undergo beta plus decay while the two protons are close, and the probability of this is vanishingly small. It happens in ...


6

There is no integration of the radial part because, as you said yourself, we want the probability of finding the electron somewhere in the spherical shell between $r$ and $r+dr$ from the nucleus. (in a differential shell between $r$ and $r+dr$, and no need to integrate over $r$.)


4

With regards your first question: A similar (the same?) question you might reasonably ask is: how can we assume that the proton is stationary, at the centre of the problem, since it is surely going to be attracted by the electron and jiggle about a little? This is a question that would be just as valid directed at a classical system --- say, a planet ...


4

The approximation that we all started out learning is the linear combination of atomic orbitals (LCAO) approach. The molecular wavefunction, $\Psi$, can be expressed as a sum of some set of basis functions: $$ \Psi(\vec{r}) = \sum_n f_n(\vec{r}) $$ and a convenient set of basis functions is the atomic orbitals of hydrogen. As a starting point we could take ...


4

When you use the reduced mass, what you have first done is to go from the variables $(r_1,p_1)$ and $(r_2,p_2)$ to $(r=r_1-r_2, p/\mu=p_1/m_1-p_2/m_2)$ and $(M R=m_1 r_1+m_2 r_2,P=p_1+p_2)$, where $M=m_1+m_2$ is the total mass and $1/\mu=1/m_1+1/m_2$ is the (inverse of the) reduced mass. As you said, this is usually introduced in classical mechanics to ...


4

No, the radial parts of the wavefunctions are not orthogonal, at least not quite to that extent. The radial components are built out of Laguerre polynomials, whose orthogonality only holds when leaving the secondary index fixed (the $\ell$ or $2\ell+1$ or whatever depending on your convention). That is, $$ \langle R_{n'\ell} \vert R_{n\ell} \rangle \equiv ...


4

Air is lighter because there are fewer molecules per unit volume compared with a unit volume of liquid water. A mole of water is 18 grams, so a liter of water contains about 55 moles (1000 grams). A mole of air at standard temperature and pressure, however, occupies a volume of 22.4 liters, much more. Dividing a mole of 02 (32 grams) by 22.4, you have ...


4

The idea here is increasingly complex depending on how deep into modern physics you want to delve, but also key to understanding quantum mechanics. So, I'll give a bit deeper explanation than it seems you've seen, but there's plenty more. It's understood that a photon acts both as a particle and a wave. As a particle it has an amount of energy associated ...


4

This calculation agrees with experimentally measured spectral lines, but why would we expect it to be true, even if we accept that the electron moves according to the Schrodinger equation? After all, there's no particular reason for an electron to be in an eigenstate. Good question! The function $\psi$ does not need to be Hamiltonian eigenfunction. ...


3

$P(r)dr$ gives you only the probability in an infinitesimal spherical shell around the center. The integration you're expecting is made, when you want to know the probability in a non-infinitesimal shell around the center. For example, you'd like to know what is the probability of finding an electron between $r=1$ and $r=2$ (in whatever coordinates), you'd ...


3

The numbers are not measured, they are part of a model that explains why the hydrogen atom emits/absorbs only at those wavelengths. The first series of Hydrogen lines to be discovered was the Balmer Series, and nobody knew why they were discrete lines instead of a continuous spectrum. Johann Balmer discovered that the lines all had wavelengths equal to, ...


3

This calculation agrees with experimentally measured spectral lines, but why would we expect it to be true, even if we accept that the electron moves according to the Schrodinger equation? Your puzzlement arises because you are putting the cart in-front of the horse. The cart is the theoretical model of quantum mechanics and the horse is the data. As ...


3

What you're trying to do is called radiometric calibration. The problem with doing it with an ordinary incandescent light bulb is that the bulb itself would have to be radiometrically calibrated to get a precise spectral calibration of the detector. That's because the bulb's spectral emissivity deviates from an ideal blackbody source with an emissivity ...


2

It's not clear to me exactly why you're unhappy with the answer you get. I would suggest phrasing your expectations in terms of the total charge contained in a sphere of radius $r$, $$4\pi\int_{0^-}^r \rho(r')r'^2\,\text dr'.$$ This should give the positive charge of the nucleus at $r\rightarrow 0^+$ (because the proton is point-sized in this model!) and ...


2

It's because there is another vector quantity $A_i$ conserved in addition to the angular momentum $L_i$. Furthermore, the commutation relations of $A_i$'s and $L_i$'s are those of $SO(4)$. See for instance this reference : http://hep.uchicago.edu/~rosner/p342/projs/weinberg.pdf


2

This might not fully answer your question, but maybe it will be a good start. Things to consider Thermal energy received by Jupiter from the sun Thermal energy radiated by Jupiter (hence, net thermal energy) Jupiter's composition Jupiter's temperature Jupiter's gravitation Hydrogen's thermal properties (among other properties) For the first 2 items to ...


2

I'm not sure what you mean by "collapse", but if I interpret that as "no hydrogen is formed" or "the electron is not captured", then 2 things can happen: 1) Elastic electron-proton scattering: the electron and proton just "bounce" off each other under some angle theta. By observing the cross section of the scattering versus the theta angle it was shown that ...


2

Air is mostly dinitrogen and dioxygen. At room temperature water is liquid and the molecules are close together due to strong attraction of water molecules to each other. This intermolecular interaction is called "hydrogen bonding". The oxygen atom of water has a partial negative charge and the hydrogens partial positive charges. A hydrogen atom of one ...


2

The Wikipedia article answers most of your questions. What are the requirements for hydrogen atoms to go through fusion? Two atoms must overcome the coulomb barrier, which can be done by forcing two atoms very close together, or by leaving them moderately close for long periods of time, which allows them to tunnel through the barrier. Is it a ...


2

Conservation of energy. If we measure the energy of an atom, we will always report an eigenvalue, because we are forcing it into an eigenstate (this is something like the quantum mechanical definition of measurement). Now suppose that we measure the energy of an atom twice, before and after it emits a photon. For conservation of energy to hold, the energy ...


2

To have emission (or absorption) of photons you must have a Hamiltonian that includes those degrees of freedom also. If your system consists of (a) the electromagnetic field and (b) a hydrogen atom, you can specify the state with (a) for each frequency, the number of photons with that frequency and (b) the state of the hydrogen atom, in your favorite way, ...


2

The expression you have there looks like that of the electron relative to the proton.


2

The simplest reaction deuterium and tritium. Tritium is common in big labs (like NIF, JET, Omega) [1]. Tritium sucks - practically speaking. It is expensive, radioactive, and hard to stockpile. Omega spent millions and years on a tritium facility. It may even never be used in fusion power [2]. The next easiest reaction is deuterium with itself. This ...


2

Assuming you could get down to liquid hydrogen and figure out how to do electrolysis at 33 K....it seems like the conductivity of molecular hydrogen would be quite low, and nothing would happen. Similar to the case of very pure water.



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