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Heavy water is easy to separate from regular water because the difference in mass is quite large. The molar mass of heavy water is 11% heavier that regular water. However if we take uranium separation, then the percentage weight difference between $^{235}$UF$_6$ and $^{238}$UF$_6$ is only 0.9%, so the relative difference is far smaller. So it's a lot ...


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The key difference is the complexity scale. In a typical every day reaction involving water, the process is thermodynamically driven; the difference in free energy between the reactants and products is much greater than any effect the extra neutron may have. In short, things happen mostly because there is a loss of energy or gain of entropy; and all the ...


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See for example this table which contains the excess energy for each nuclide. You can take this table to compute the number you are interested in. The answer depends not only on the atomic number, but on the number of neutrons as well. This is why you need to think about how you want to represent this. I recommend you study that table and then figure out ...


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In the real world transitions are rarely (never?) forbidden because the assumptions we make rarely hold exactly. You are quite correct that the 21 cm transition has $\Delta\ell = 0$ and is therefore forbidden. However it can occur (very slowly) as a magnetic dipole transition. The lifetime of the excited state is around $10^{15}$ seconds, and we can observe ...


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The problem with using a chemical approach is that isotopes have nearly identical chemical properties. Anything you can do with water can be done identically with heavy water. The only real differences are mass and any radioactivity the isotope provides. Thus the only known effective way to separate isotopes is to rely on mass differences. Unfortunately, ...



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