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It is done all the time in acoustics, ask any musician! However Shen probably was referring to harmonic generation in radio frequencies; with radio is is called a frequency multiplier. The heterodyne technique was invented in 1901. The Kerr effect was first found about 1876. The first footnote in this article provides some historical background: altering ...


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Millikan was the first to experimentally discover the photoelectric effect. The 1923 Physics Nobel Prize was awarded to Millikan "for his work on the elementary charge of electricity and on the photoelectric effect". Einstein did no experimental work regarding the photoelectric effect. Also, the 1918 Nobel Prize was awarded to Max Plank "in recognition of ...


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What Einstein added to the discussion was the idea that electromagnetic energy comes in little particle-like packets. That was a very radical concept at the time (and frankly still is).


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Newton was not the first to devise or discover the concept of momentum. This goes at least as far back as Fr. Jean Buridan (ca. 1295 - ca. 1358), professor of natural philosophy and rector of the University of Paris, who was the first to introduce the impetus theory of projectile motion. See this translated excerpt from his Quaestiones super octo physicrum ...


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Electromotive force is not a mechanical force, but a driving electrical force for charges or the potential energy per unit charge stored in the electrical source. It can be seen as the work that can be done by the source to drive off electrons in a circuit, provided there is no internal resistance of the source. This potential is the gradient of the ...


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International Handbook of Research in History, Philosophy and Science Teaching quotes the English translation of Guisasola et al. (2008), which discusses some of the early history of the EMF. The man who coined the term "electromotive force" was Alessandro Volta, who stated that there was a force separating the charges in current flowing in a closed circuit. ...


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The concept of electric charge is introduced to explain experiments (originally from static electricity). It is found that only two types of charges are necessary and to distinguish them and to distinguish between they are given labels. The most convenient label is positive and negative (that has some mathematical advantages). It is pure convention that ...


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All particles seems to be grouped under two distinct polarities based on the manner of attraction or repulsion. Those particles repelling one another are said to have like charges. Those that attract one another have different charges. Being a positive or negative charge, is a matter of convention already accepted by world scientific community. A Charge is ...


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"What Einstein was really looking for was a new way to transform between reference frames that would keep the laws of electrodynamics invariant inasmuch as the Galilean transformations keep the laws of Newton invariant?" It wasn't so much about finding the transformations, because the Lorentz transformations had been known for a while at the time, since ...


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I second Jammer's book. It is conceptually well laid out. Contrasted to this, Pais' book ("Inward Bound") tries to chronologically catalogue the events. So, it depends on what exactly you are looking for. Apart from these two, there are other books which are narrow and focused about quantum physics topics. E.g., there is Wheaton's "The Tiger and the ...



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