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Here is an explanation of electrical flow that might illuminate this matter: http://amasci.com/amateur/elecdir.html

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That there are two distinct types of electric charge is a metaphysical fact. But nature is indifferent to what we choose to label these charges; up / down, left / right, positive / negative, black / white, etc. Electrons will still flow to the plate in a CRT regardless of how we choose to label the polarity of the charge on the electron and plate. ...

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Benjamin Franklin proposed electric fluid theory and considered electric current to be flow of a charged fluid. He meant to use positive to denote a surplus of the fluid, negative as a deficit of it. No one knows how he came up with the choice, but it became the convention and as a result lead also to the labeling of charge. I know of no fact that could ...

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As Zeldredge said the name is arbitrary and does not matter electron could have been positive and protron negative just the name.

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First of all, you can look at the translation of his paper here. As was already noted Planck firstly discovered the correct blackbody radiation formula by simple interpolation of $R=-\Bigl(\frac{\partial^2 S}{\partial U^2}\Bigr)^{-1}$ where $S$ is entropy and $U$ - mean energy of the oscillator in the bath. He knew that $R=\alpha U$ gives Wien law for ...

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This is from David Bohm's book, Quantum Theory might be a help to you. Not sure it's the complete derivation, but I think it is. also not sure if it's the orginal method P. used to find it, or Bohm's version (probably the latter) (not sure about copyright either, but the book is 70 odd years old :) any problem with that, i will need to delete it

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The below seems to be a candidate for the first use of the term 'Majorana fermion'. (I'm not sure if it satisfies your other criteria.) Salam, Abdus, and J. Strathdee. Super-symmetry and non-Abelian gauges. International Centre for Theoretical Physics, Trieste (Italy), 1974.

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It is an empirical observation, with an assumption that there is enough air flow over the temperature gradient (wind) to allow more rapid change in temp. With no wind, we end up with the law of natural cooling, which is proportional to $(\delta T)^{5/4}$, instead of $\delta T$. This law also has separate constants from newtons law of cooling! this is a ...

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Newton's law of cooling is an empirical observation not a fundamental law. The cooling of a body in air is a formidably complicated process because the cooling is dominated by the air flow, and the air flow is complicated to model. However we find from experiment that over a limited range of temperatures the cooling rate is proportional to the temperature ...

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I'd like to add two points to describe the history after the events and people described in Svetlana'a answer: After James Joule discovered the relationship between mechanical work and the generation of heat in about 1850, in the hands of the nineteenth century thermodynamicists (Clausius, Gibbs and especially Thomson (Lord Kelvin)) the notion of a budget ...

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$\hat{I}_D(k)={{g^2}\over4}\int_0^1d\alpha\int_0^\infty d\sigma\int\sigma\mathrm{e}^{-[q^2+\alpha(1-\alpha)k^2+m^2]\sigma}\vec{a}q$. Just a wild guess. [Oh, you asked for two formulae. Sorry.] Either that, or it is $\int_0^\infty\mathrm{e}^{-a\alpha}\sigma d\sigma=a^{-2}$.

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Try S. L. McCall and E. L.Hahn -- Phys. Rev. vol. 183, p.457 (1969).

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As far as i could find with quick search EIT was first proposed by Jakob Khanin and graduate student Olga Kocharovskaya at Gorky State University, Russia, in 1986.

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Mach et al. criticized Newton's absolute space and formulated alternative explanations of Newton's bucket experiment. More recently, Schrödinger applied Weber's force law to gravitation/cosmology: "The Possibility of Fulfillment of the Relativity Requirement in Classical Mechanics", Annalen der Physik 77:325-336 (1925)(translated in Einstein Studies, vol. ...

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The elucidation of the structure of DNA began as an exercise in x-ray crystallography. If you shine a beam of x-rays through a crystal, it will act like a diffraction grating, and the points of constructive interference will show up as dark spots on photographic film. This had been used for decades to determine the structure of relatively simple molecules. A ...

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You raise an interesting point about the role of experiment and falsifiability in science. Despite a long-standing anomaly in Mercury's perihelion, Newton's theory of gravity itself wasn't heavily questioned, let alone rejected or falsified. Rather, auxiliary assumptions were concocted that saved Newton's theory, such as an erroneous mass of Venus, a planet ...

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