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Newton would not say that an individual standing on the Earth represents an inertial frame of reference. An inertial frame is one in which Newton first law applies i.e. an object moves in a straight line at constant speed. Since the observer dropping the apple observers the apple to accelerate that observer's frame is non-inertial. However you are correct, ...


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Since you mention the following in one of your comments I'm less interested in Einsteins historical struggles and would love a more modern perspective on how to get to this insight. I hereby unashamedly ignore history, and offer instead a quick plausibility argument. Let's start with the equivalence principle which, loosely speaking, says that a (...


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Are there any numerical predictions for G from modern theories What are physics theories? They are mathematical models which fit data, measurements in a laboratory or observations with real numbers. If they only fit data, then they are just mathematical maps of reality. To be a theory they also have to predict new setups, they have to be predictive to be a ...


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Because this is exactly the same as swinging a bucket of water in a vertical circle. The water will not fall out, if it is swung fast enough. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Zjqrx7wrpJc source When you swing things around in circular orbits, it wants to fly "out of" the orbit. That is why water in the bucket is squeezing against the bucket which is the ...



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