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Gluons and photons are similar in the sense that they are both massless gauge bosons. They do, however, correspond to different gauge symmetries: photons arise due to $\mathrm{U}(1)$ symmetry, while gluons follow from $\mathrm{SU}(3)$. This leads to a different number of particles: there is only one photon, while there are eight different gluons, ...


From the perspective of fundamental quantum field theory, gluons and photons are quite similar. Both of them are gauge bosons, meaning that their existence is required by a mathematical mechanism called local gauge invariance. However, as particles, there isn't any particular connection between them. For instance, there's no reason they both have to be ...


Gluons are the bosons associated with the strong nuclear force. The particles W and Z are the bosons associated with weak nuclear force. The strong nuclear force holds quarks together to make nucleons.

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