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2

Because glueballs have energy, and $E = m c^2$ says that energy is equivalent to mass. (Or another way to say it is that if you "zoom out" far enough that you can't see the constituent gluons that form the glueball, than you just lump all their energy into an effective glueball mass.) The energy can be thought of as just being the kinetic energy of the ...


5

If you had a gas of photons in a perfect cavity and these photons had energy $E~=~h\nu$, then for $N$ photons the cavity would have a mass $m~=~Nh\nu/c^2$ of photons. Glueballs as similar. The gluon carries two color charges (really color plus anti-color) and they can interact with each other. This forms a self-bound system that confines the massless gauge ...


4

Because in relativity the mass of a collection of particles is not necessarily the sum of the masses. Even two photons (treated as a unit) can have mass. Consider the total four-vector of a system with component four-vectors $(E,\hat{z}E/c)$ and $(E,-\hat{z}E/c)$. It has mass $(mc^2)^2 = (2E)^2$.



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