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Let´s go: [1] From the DIS (Deep Inelastic Scattering) of eletron-proton, we can imagine that the photon exchanged in te process "sees" a parton (possible constituent of the proton) distribuition. We can imagine a cross-section of photons and that constituents of the proton. And we can analyze two situations: From a cross-section of longitudinal (scalar) ...

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There exist no free gluons, it is called confinement: Since gluons themselves carry color charge, they participate in strong interactions. These gluon-gluon interactions constrain color fields to string-like objects called "flux tubes", which exert constant force when stretched. Due to this force, quarks are confined within composite particles called ...

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1) Note that the non-relativistic gluon model of glueballs has even less justification than the non-relativistic quark model of baryons and mesons. This is because the model messes up the spin assignments: Massless gluons have only two spin states, but non-relativistic gluons have three. 2) The color quantum numbers are trivial: The product  [8]\times ...

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At lowest order, color screening comes from virtual quark/antiquark pairs, just like charge screening comes from electron/positron pairs in QCD. The diagram/effect is also referred to as 'vacuum polarization' and is shown below. Charge antiscreening comes from virtual gluon pairs; its diagram is below.

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