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Isostasy is an important geophysical concept needed to understand the relationship of gravity, mass distribution, and first-order topography of the earth. The elevation of the ocean basins is lower than the continents because oceanic crust is thinner and more dense than continental crust. The gravity anomaly over a mountain range is less than you might ...

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You are quite correct that the position of the tectonic plates does affect Earth's gravity. The most accurate measurements of this were made by NASA's GRACE satellites. The results are generally shown as a geoid, that is a deformed globe showing where gravity is high and where it's low: Note the scale is exaggerated to highlight the differences. The scale ...

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It depends what accuracy you want to say things are equal. We often say $g=9.81 m/sec^2$ at the earth's surface and don't worry about it. Altitude and latitude affect this at the $0.3\%$ level. You can look at Wikipedia to start. Continental crust versus ocean crust is lower, but noticeable.

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I'm not an expert in this but roughly gravity depends on the distance to the center of the earth and, in a first approximation, this depends on two different factors. First, and most importantly, the fact that the earth is not perfectly spherical but has an oblate shape because of its rotation. Second the altitude of a particular place. So I believe that ...

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If you substitute the decomposition in, you get: $$\partial_t \rho^0 + \partial_t \rho^{E1} + \nabla \cdot (\rho^0 \mathbf{u}^E) + \nabla \cdot (\rho^{E1} \mathbf{u}^E) = 0$$ Typically the decomposition used assumes that $\rho^0$ is constant in time and that $\rho^{E1}$ is random in time, such that it's mean value is 0. Therefore, \$\partial_t \rho^0 = ...

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Atmospheric pressure, at some altitude, is largely due to the weight of the atmosphere above that altitude. The atmosphere also virtually behaves like an ideal gas. If evaporation of liquid water increases the concentration of H2O molecules in the air the density decreases and the air becomes buoyant and rises. As it rises it expands and cools. Rising air ...

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The atmosphere is more or less at equilibrium with regards to being compressed by gravity, so there is no atmospheric heating caused by gravity (otherwise the atmosphere would gradually get closer and closer to the Earth, which clearly is not the case). Heating of the atmosphere is almost entirely due to radiant energy from the sun, along with terrestrial ...

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I don't think that the fact that they are connected to the grid has anything to do with that. In fact, the generator part of the turbine is one of the most expensive parts, so it is protected against impacts from the outside. The reason is simple: the turbine blades are being charged as a result of rubbing against the humid air. As a result we can observe ...

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Yes, you are correct. The sun is still/already below the horizon at the time of apparent sunrise/sunset, and each of these effects will extend the length of each day by exactly the same amount because the situation is completely symmetrical. Well caught!

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