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It is by simply erosion. The higher the water velocity impacts the surface, the faster the erosion or, if by drips, the longer time span it will require. High pressure water jets will erode rock very quickly while drips of water can take eons. But the process is the same. By erosion.


I've worked out a formula that assumes no absorption in the atmosphere, and that light is only backscattered. It takes into account the backscattering of the light reflected off the surface. In the diagram below: TOA is Top Of Atmosphere $\tau_a$ and $A_a$ are the transmittance and albedo of the atmosphere such that $\tau_a+A_a=1$ $A_s$ is the albedo of ...


The Albedo describes the fraction of radiation reflected for a given area of the surface. If you are combining albedos for different parts of the surface of a body, you need to weight them by their areas, for example consider albedos $\alpha_1$ and $\alpha_2$ corresponding to areas $A_1$ and $A_2$, then the effective albedo for the total area is: ...

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