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In really simple terms the equation f=mg can be utilised. It calculates the gravitational potential energy of the mountain and therefore the energy needed to lift a mountain.


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When tectonic plates collide, the crust can become thicker at the edge of collision by the folding and faulting of crustal rocks. Because crust has a lower density than the asthenosphere and mantle, the region of thicker crust can rise due to buoyancy forces until it reaches isostatic equilibrium. This model of orogeny is referred to in geology as isostasy. ...


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Besides Mars having a weaker gravity field than Earth, it also has a much weaker magnetic field. Therefore, Mars' atmosphere was not protected from the solar wind. NASA scientists put forth the theory that the small sparse magnetic field that Mars does have actually helped the solar wind to drive off the atmosphere. ...


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The main reason Earth still has its water and Mars doesn't is gravity. Earth is big enough so that typical thermal speeds of hydrogen in the upper atmosphere don't get to escape velocity. On Mars, this is not the case, Mars having significantly less mass and therefore lower escape velocity. As a result, over a long time, much of the hydrogen that was ...


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A slightly simpler version of David Hammen's (as usual excellent) answer: Earth is "big enough" to have sufficient pull on the atmosphere: gravity stops it from escaping Earth is "close enough" to the sun to keep liquid water (and liquid core) Core is sufficiently magnetic that it acts to protect against solar wind (which would otherwise strip the ...


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The Earth's climate isn't quite as stable as you think. The Earth's climate has toggled back and forth between a greenhouse Earth and an icehouse Earth for the last 600 million years or so. During the icehouse Earth phases, the climate can enter an ice age, an extended period of time during which the climate in oscillates between glaciations and ...



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