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69

There's two main misconceptions in your question that cause your confusion. First, pressure doesn't cause higher temperature. This misconception is probably a result of a massive oversimplification with relation to the ideal gas equation. The actual relation is "increasing the pressure of an ideal gas while volume remains constant increases the temperature ...


4

There is another factor that I feel the other answers have overlooked, because there is a similar analogy with air, and air is compressible. Specifically, why is air in valleys often colder than at the top of the hill when pressure heats things? In reality, there are two different dynamics at work. One is adiabatic compression, which as has been ...


20

Colder water is denser until it reaches a temperature a couple degrees above freezing, then it gets lighter again. So the water at the bottom is at the specific temperature where it is densest: any heating makes it rise. Any further cooling makes it rise. See Why does the ocean get colder at depth? This further points out that without ocean circulation ...


6

It has been covered above that there is little scope for water to be heated by compression to begin with. Another aspect is that the water at the bottom of the ocean has been there for a considerable length of time. Hence, if it had heated up to any large extent when the oceans were formed, there has been ample time for the heat of compression to have ...


61

It's not so much the pressure, but rather compression that creates heat. Heat is a measure of increased kinetic energy as molecules are forced into a smaller space. Water is not very compressible, and water at the bottom of the ocean is not confined to a significantly smaller space under pressure. The kinetic energy of water molecules at the bottom of ...


2

Have them pull out their smart phone and open up Google maps and touch the icon to zoom to their current location. Remind them that what they just did is only made possible by satellites in orbit using clocks specially tuned according to general relativity to maintain accurate synchronization with clocks on the surface (i.e., in the smart phone). Welcome ...


20

Related to the Andrea di Biagio answer. Here is a typical flight path for the Beunos Aires-Auckland route. The distance is approximately 10,300 km by the shortest route along a sphere. Direct flights are offered by Air New Zealand and take 11h40m - an average speed of 882 km/h. Looking at the map you present, the distance from Auckland to Buenos Aires looks ...


9

You need three flat Earth theorists on different continents (or otherwise well separated) all in on a (video) conference call, and have them measure the azimuth and elevation angles of the sun at the same time. The set of angles that they report will be inconsistent with their locations being on a flat disk laid out as in the map in the question. This is a ...


3

If the sun is a disk (or sphere) that is a certain distance above the earth, close enough that you get it at different angles above the horizon depending on where you stand, then it has to look like a different size to different people. If it looks the same size, then you cannot explain that it's at a different height above the horizon. See this diagram: ...


11

Foucault Pendulum is a great example. The original purpose of this experiment was to prove that earth rotates relative to the stars and not the other way around, yet nevertheless it proves that the earth rotates in a way which contradicts the "flat earth" theorem. This experiment can be easily recreated at home, if you don't live close enough to equator.


5

If you believe that anyone lives on antarctica at all, or really anywhere south of the antarctic circle, then you can use the "midnight sun" effect, which should not happen in the flat earth theory (because the sun moves around the "antarctica ring" during northern winter). Surveillance cameras will also work for this, if eyewitness accounts are not ...


2

Try https://www.insecam.org/ .Take a flat map of earth and make them go to the cities and watch the light and the online clocks. Nothing but a sphere fits the data. If the sun is going around a disk there would be night almost simultaneously over the flat disk, whereas the cameras will show progressive changes and night for half of their flat earth.


3

Take an arrow which you put tangent to the earth (assume it to be a perfect sphere). Now, travel around in such a way that 1) you enclose some finite area, 2) do not rotate the arrow locally. Coming back to your starting point you will notice the following: Although you did not rotate your arrow locally, you will end up with an arrow which is rotated ...


5

Can you convince your friend that time zones are for real? If he will believe that it is nighttime in China when it is daytime in the US, then his disk theory can't be correct.


6

Airplanes. Note that dozens of flights cross every ocean and the equator in all directions every day. If the Earth were a disk, it would actually be impossible to do that. For example, if the border of the disk were more or less where the borders of a planisphere are, it would be impossible to cross the Pacific. How would your friend explain how flights ...


27

I live close to Lake Erie and often see scenes like in this picture. Note that the bottom of the cargo ship cannot be seen due to the curvature of the Earth.


-1

This is a side view in a high pressure area and low pressure area: The high pressure air flows outward from its center (moving from higher pressure to lower pressure) and to the ground, whereas the low pressure air flows towards its center (from low pressure air to even lower pressure air). The low pressure air forms clouds when it flows towards its ...


3

The basic phenomenon is that high frequency sound is more strongly attenuated than low frequency sound. The mechanism for sound attenuation is viscous damping. The absorption coefficient is $$ \gamma= \frac{\omega^2}{2\rho c^3}\left[ \frac{4}{3}\eta + \zeta + \kappa\left(\frac{1}{c_v}-\frac{1}{c_p}\right) \right], $$ where $\omega$ is the frequency, $\rho$ ...


1

In most media, high frequencies will be attenuated more strongly than low frequencies. Even if the loss mechanisms are the same, for a certain amplitude a higher frequency wave will have a greater velocity (displacement of particles, not wave velocity), and thus greater "drag" per cycle. If the loss mechanism is the same, then the wave will lose the same ...



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