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Yes, all Uranium in the Solar System was formed long before the birth of Earth. But, we don't consider any Uranium rock to calculate age of Earth. We use Zircon minerals (there're other standard minerals, too). At the time of formation of Earth, Zircon minerals were formed. Zircon mineral formation includes Uranium atoms into crystalline structure, but ...


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As CO2 increases, the photosynthesis rate in plants generally increases. The degree of the effect is species dependent. See Effects of Rising Atmospheric Concentrations of Carbon Dioxide on Plants.


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Under the assumptions of linear wave theory, there is no net transport of mass, but there is a net transport or energy and momentum. Because you are asking about sea waves, I believe these are appropriate assumptions for your question. For example, it would be the sort of analysis to perform to estimate the horizontal forces a wave train (e.g. tsunami) would ...


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There has to be a few assumptions. Let's assume we are talking about a linear plane wave in relatively deep water. Because the the case where the bottom comes into play the upward hydrostatic force distorts the wave. Picking deep water or insuring the relative depth of d to L (d is average water depth and L is the wavelength of the wave) is $d/L > ...


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Since it's the momentum of the wave that you are after, here's a good way to estimate its mass: On the open ocean: Waves are approximately sinusoidal in shape. Take a trough - the lowest point for a wave - as the base. Estimate the height of the wave and perform an integral to estimate the cross-sectional area of a wave. Then multiply this by the ...


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Most of the energy of a tsunami wave is gravitational energy. It is the rise in sea level, and the retreat of the surge, which is most devastating. Our cities are vulnerable because we build right to the edge of the sea. If we left a reasonable buffer of tidal flats, marshes, or sand berms between ourselves and the ocean, the energy of tsunami or storm ...



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