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The gauge connection is not unique, and this has nothing to do with the presence of matter fields. Let $\Sigma$ be our space-time, $P$ a principal $G$-bundle, and $\mathcal{A}$ the space of connections on $P$. Then, gauge transformations $t : P \to G$, forming the group of gauge transformations $\mathcal{G}$ have an action on $\mathcal{A}$ given by $$ A ...


Let's assume a typical fermionic mass-term (interacting leptons and quarks are spin 1/2-particles): $$ \tag 1 \bar{\Psi}\Psi = \bar{\Psi}\left(\frac{1 + \gamma_{5}}{2} + \frac{1 - \gamma_{5}}{2}\right)\Psi = \left| \bar{\Psi}\left( 1 \pm \gamma_{5} \right) = \left( (1 \mp \gamma_{5})\Psi\right)^{\dagger}\gamma_{0} \right| = $$ $$ =\bar{\Psi}_{L}\Psi_{R} + ...

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