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Going to the conformal gauge is nothing but using coordinates in which the metric is diagonal (in euclidean space this is called isothermal coordinates ). Therefore in order to show that the Polyakov action is Weyl-invariant without using the conformal gauge, it is sufficient to show that the action does not dependent on the coordinate choice at all. ...


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No. Gauge invariance is not a real physical symmetry but a mathematical property of the formalism while renormalization is more deep property related to the scaling of the coupling constant. One can think interaction that breaks gauge but is still renormalizable. It is fact that QED and QCD are gauge theories but gravity is a gauge theory and not ...


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First of all, the oblique parameters S,T and U are defined to be zero within the Standard Model (SM). This means, that the SM is a reference and therefore, these parameters are indications for physics beyond the Standard Model (BSM). They account for corrections in the vacuum polarizations of the EW gauge bosons and are chosen in a way, that different BSM ...


2

The gauge potential is an object that, when introduced in the covariant derivative, is intended to cancel the terms that spoil the linear transformation of the field under the gauge group. Every gauge transformation $g:\Sigma\to G$ (on a spacetime $\Sigma$) connected to the identity may be written as $\mathrm{e}^{\mathrm{i}\chi(x)}$ for some Lie algebra ...


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In fact, global gauge transformations are a subset of local gauge transformation: changing the same amount everywhere is a special case (ie, more restricting) of changing the phase of each point independently. In the Dirac Lagrangian $$\mathcal{L} = \bar{\psi}(i\gamma^\mu\partial_\mu - m)\psi$$ you have to derive $\psi$. If you make a global transformation ...


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Multiplying by $e^{i\theta}$ is a rotation of $\theta$ in the complex plane. Physically it changes the phase of a plane wave by an angle $\theta$. This is a global symmetry because we arbitrarily choose a reference point for measuring the phase of plane waves. If we change the phase of all plane waves by an equal amount then this is equivalent to just moving ...



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