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OK, you are referring to the fusion reaction $^{12}$C + $^{1}$H $\rightarrow$ $^{13}$N + $\gamma$. Let's neglect the $\gamma$ and insert the atomic masses $12\cdot u + 1.00782503223\cdot u = 13.005738609\cdot u + x$, where $x$ is an upper boundary for the released energy (since we neglected the $\gamma$). The data for the atomic masses is from the NIST ...


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In my understanding the reason for using helium first is slightly different: It is correct that helium provides a safe way to start an experiment but safe in that sense that when you use hydrogen you usually have a problem with recycling and refuelling from the wall (hydrogen being bounded to some wall materials, leaves the wall-material, called desorption). ...


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What are the properties of proton+proton fusion reaction $$p + p → 2H + e^+ + ν_e + 0.42 MeV$$ making it hard to replicate on Earth? This reaction has been replicated many times on Earth. The problem is that the reaction requires a proton to decay into a positron and a neutron at the instant the collision occurs. This is extremely unlikely. This is why, ...


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The problem is that there is a huge potential barrier for the fusion of two protons due to their electrostatic repulsion, and this makes fusion an extremely low probability process. Even in the extreme conditions in the core of the Sun proton fusion is exceedingly slow - this is discussed in Why does the Sun's (or other stars') nuclear reaction not ...


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The reaction has been studied in accelerators A bubble chamber study of proton-proton interactions at 4 GeV/c Part I—Elastic scattering, single-pion and deuteron production .Summary Elastic scattering, single-pion and deuteron production have been investigated. The cross-section for elastic scattering is σelastic = (13.5±0.3) mb. The angular ...


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The density is not high enough in Jupiter or Saturn to achieve a sustainable environment for the fusion of hydrogen and helium.



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