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Deuterium-Deuterium fusion without Tritium is very possible. Historically, D-D fusion was the first form of nuclear fusion mankind successfully achieved. It may be worthwhile remembering that, at the dawn of the nuclear age in 1952, an inertial confinement fusion experiment that used nuclear fission to produce the conditions for nuclear fusion called Ivy ...


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The best neutron generators (~3E+11 neutrons/second) are from Phoenix Nuclear Labs in Madison, Wisconsin. They are doing (at least) deuterium fusion to make these neutrons. Their machine is based on a fusor. But the design is very different. Electric fields do work on the ions - heating them to fusion conditions. That is the physical mechanism. In a ...


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The problem of whether and how to include electrons/positrons in mass-energy calculations is based on the difference between the entities involved in the reaction, and the entities for which masses can be determined. This becomes more complicated when there may be both orbital electrons and nuclear-sourced electrons/positrons involved. Consider the last ...


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The question says "nuclei of hydrogen" ie. protons. In the middle of a star there isn't likely to be much atomic hydrogen around!


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Firstly, fusion doesn't happen in the way depicted in the question. Four protons don't participate in a 4-body reaction. Instead there are many intermediate steps: Each step has its own reaction rate. The overall reaction rate is determined by the rate limiting step. The proton-proton reaction is the rate limiting step in this case. It is important ...


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Muon mean lifetime is 2.2 ┬Ás. There's your problem. Muons mass 105.7 MeV/c2, about 200 times that of the electron. If you wanted to ionize a hydrogen atom, you would need 13.6 eV. If you wanted to ionize a muonic hydrogen atom, you would need about 2813 eV or about a 0.441 nm photon. Start building your laser.


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The Wikipedia article answers most of your questions. What are the requirements for hydrogen atoms to go through fusion? Two atoms must overcome the coulomb barrier, which can be done by forcing two atoms very close together, or by leaving them moderately close for long periods of time, which allows them to tunnel through the barrier. Is it a ...


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This creates a point of extremely focused energy at the middle point where the bubble collapses. In theory, this point focuses enough energy to trigger nuclear fusion. It is not currently accepted mainstream science to say that collapsing bubbles focus energy enough to cause nuclear fusion. Temperatures over 10,000K can be acheived, but are still well ...


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I do not trust Dr Bussards scaling. He did not have enough data to make those scaling claims. The University of Sydney (Gummersall, 2013) scaled some factors in their simulations: A. Current in the rings (Amps or AmpTurns) B. Size of the rings (Meters) C. Energy of electrons (KeV) But, they were looking at how many electrons were trapped - not fusion ...


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Carbon has to be produced by the triple-alpha process because there is no stable nucleus with 8 or 5 nucleons. The probability of this is very low, because it requires three different particles to be in the same place at the same time. You'll note that the Wikipedia article says: One consequence of this is that no significant amount of carbon was ...


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Here they say that there is no waste per se only that some parts can become contaminated and they'll refurbish them onsite. The rest will be handed over to the authorities. https://www.iter.org/mach/hotcell The Hot Cell Facility will be necessary at ITER to provide a secure environment for the processing, repair or refurbishment, testing, and ...


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That's right. I'm really out of the loop regarding nuclear fusion shielding so feel free to correct me, but the only radioactive waste will be the reactor's inner walls (because of the radiation). The only other 'waste' that a fusion reactor produces is helium.



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