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The important argument for this discussion is the Bethe Weizs├Ącker formula, which describes the binding energy of nuclei. I will try to give a cursory overview of the most important aspects. Not only heavy elements show fission and fusion. All elements up to iron-56 (one of the nuclei with the highest binding energy per nucleon) can create energy in ...


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There is a lighter nuclide which undergoes fission: $^8Be$. It fissions to two $^4He$ nuclei ($\alpha $ particles) with a lifetime on the order of $10^{-17}$ s. The binding energy per nucleon is much less for the beryllium than for the two $\alpha$s. It's important to note that $^8Be$ is an important link in the triple-alpha fusion process in older stars ...


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I am addressing this part of the question: Also why do only neutrons show fission/fusion and why can't electrons preform fission/fusion? Nuclei with a large number of neutrons are unstable . It so happens for some of them that an extra neutron in a specific low energy range can be caught when impinging on that nucleus , but the resultant new isotope ...


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Jupiter will never (not on any timescale like the lifetime of the Sun anyway) accrete enough mass to begin hydrogen fusion. It would need to accrete 12 times its current mass to undergo a brief period of fusing its interior deuterium and to accrete more than 70 times its current mass to attain a central temperature high enough to sustain hydrogen (pp chain) ...


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I'm not entirely sure what you mean about 'pulling hydrogen', all bodies, whether they be planets or literally human bodies, will pull hydrogen via gravity. Earth can lose the H it attracts as H is so light that it can have speeds greater than the escape velocity (just due to random thermal motion). Perhaps Jupiter is sufficiently massive that this happens ...



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