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OP's underlying question is essentially the same as this Phys.SE post, although the detailed calculation is slightly different and interesting to compare. I) The action for a free non-relativistic point particle with mass $m=1$ reads: $$\tag{1} S ~=~\frac{1}{2}\int_0^T\! dt~ \dot{x}(t)^2~=~ \frac{1}{2}\langle x,Ax \rangle~=~\frac{1}{2}\sum_{n\in ...

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