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It's quiet simple: The photon is absorbed by an electron, the direction of the electron's spin flips and sends a neuron to the brain. A lightbulb works the other way around: Electrons are forced to flip their spin and therefore they are emitting photons.


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Although there are already some excellent answers, I believe they are a little complex. Please allow me to offer a simplistic answer. Let me start with the analogy of sound waves and the ear. The sound enters the ear and causes certain cilia to vibrate in response to the frequency and amplitude of the sound wave. Similarly a photon (as a wave), enters the ...


2

Photons are energy. When a photon hits your retina, that energy is absorbed and converted to electrical energy in your optic nerve.


6

Light from all over the place hits your eyeball fairly randomly. The lens forces light from a specific angle to hit a specific part of the retina. This HowStuffWorks article shows how the mechanics of that work. The only major differences between camera lenses and eyeball lenses is that we can dynamically alter the shape of the lens to focus on different ...


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Photons can be created and destroyed freely, since they don't have charge or mass. Turn on a light, and you create many photons. Any body (made of atoms) not at absolute zero temperature will spontaneously emit photons. They are consumed just as easily. Most any bit of bulk matter will absorb a photon in the electrons on the surface, transforming the energy ...


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Imagine a spring-loaded trap with a hole that's sized such that only a particular size of object can enter the hole and trigger the trap. The molecules involved in vision are like that trap, with a bond having an electron energy gap tuned to the visible frequencies of light, encapsulated in a specialized protein that transforms the absorbed energy into a ...


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Shortly, the energy of the photon goes over to the electron. But energy is a vague concept. In material sense, could the photon, or better, the electron's electric field and the electron's magnetic field be quantized? I developed a model with two different quanta. Photons, electrons, positron's, protons, neutrons, ... are made from this quanta. Photons are ...


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From the wiki article on color vision as an illustration of how photons are absorbed: Perception of color begins with specialized retinal cells containing pigments with different spectral sensitivities, known as cone cells. In humans, there are three types of cones sensitive to three different spectra, resulting in trichromatic color vision. Each ...


1

One way to think of this is to imagine a high-speed camera which takes 1000 frames per second (which is 40x as many as a regular film camera). Then imagine putting the frames into groups of 40, and averaging each group, so that you now have a film with a normal framerate, where each frame is the average of 40 high speed frames. The resulting film would be ...


2

The answer is that your view or sight is different from the bare images made by the imaging optics of your eye on your retina. A "view" also includes signal processing from the brain that tracks what you fix your gaze on. Light can pass between the blades and form an image of the retina for at least some time. It's true that there are also blades blocking ...


3

Because human eyes and brains are slow, they cannot resolve the motion of the blades, but only see the average of the moving blades and the image in the background (this is actually primarily really due to the slow reaction time of the cones, which is slow, as is demonstrated by the fact that a 24 frames per second video does not appear as single images but ...


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The eyes are measuring the number of photons of each color that are hitting a given point of the retina – that are coming from some direction. This is a function of time, $f(t)$, for each point. However, when this function is changing too quickly, the eye can't see the changes. Effectively, the eye may also see the average of $f(t)$ in each period of time ...



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