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The laser may be lasing on multiple modes (multiple longitudinal modes, multiple transverse modes, or both). Each of the individual modes may have a very long coherence length, while the many modes taken together would have a much shorter coherence length. Suppose that one of the modes has, say, 40% of the power, and that four other modes have 15% of the ...


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Use an ellipsometer. It's a common tool in semi-conductor processing and thin layer coating specialists for optics. It uses polarized light and measures the relative change in polarization angle with depth. From this you can get index, thickness of a layer stack.


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Only the change in kinetic energy or work done in slowing down the falling mass should be considered. The work done on the falling masses when they hit the floor or table has to be omitted because the energy involved is not transferred to the water.



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