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The activity of a radioactive source is measured (SI units) in Bq - Becquerels. One Bq = 1 disintegration per second. Frequently you will see the Curie (Ci) which is $37 \cdot 10^9 Bq$. The energy of radiation depends on the decay scheme. For example, for Cs-137 you find (source: ...


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As noted in the comments the count rate is (to first order) proportional to the activity: $$ \text{rate} = k \cdot \text{activity} \,.$$ The constant of proportionality is $$ k = \text{acceptance} \times \text{efficiency} \times \text{fractional live time} \,,$$ where acceptance is a geometric factor, quantum efficiency is a property of the detector and ...


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I'm going to answer for fairly energetic neutrons. There are a several of parameters that you have to know and they are dependent on the details of your device to the point that you have to measure them; that is to say that you calibrate each device. The parameters are the fraction of the energy that gets transferred to fast charged particles (usually ...



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