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106

A 40W incandescent light bulb has a luminous efficiency of 1.9%. That means only 1.9%, or 0.76W, of the energy consumed by the bulb ends up as visible light. LED bulbs have an efficiency of around 10% - the efficiency depends on the design and can be as high as 15% or as low as 8%. So a 6W LED bulb will produce between 0.9 and 0.48W of visible light. The ...


54

The advertising suggests that the new 6W bulb generates as much light as a 40W incandescent light used to. Most of the energy in an incandescent light bulb is converted into infrared radiation that we can't see or it's at the red end of the spectrum where the human eye is not very sensitive. This is a typical incandescent spectrum and you can see how ...


27

You're mixing power needs with luminous effects. According to the advert you posted, that LED bulb consumes 6W (power) to get a luminous flux of 500 lumens (lumen is a photometric unit, like candela or lux): https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Luminous_flux On the other hand, an incandescent bulb would need to consume 40W (power) to get the same luminous flux. ...


6

The temperature limit for laser cooling is not related to gravity but to the always-present momentum kick during absoprtion/emission of photons. Ultracold atom experiments typically use laser cooling at an initial stage and afterwards evaporative cooling is used to reach the lowest temperatures. In evaporative cooling the most energetic atoms are discarded ...


3

This question appears to be a pseudo-duplicate on the Skeptics exchange, as pointed out by @CraigGidney. The highlights of the comments here and answer there appear to be that: 1) Yes, one could potentially accrue some electricity from soil. 2) No, it would not (ever) be sufficient to charge an iPhone, let alone 3 times. 3) In the comments here, "there ...


2

To my understanding, work is done on object A when object B is applying a force on object A, causing object A to displace. Work is done whenever a force displaces an object. Since energy is the ability to do work, what work does a moving object do, due to its kinetic energy? A moving object might not do any work at all. Imagine an empty ...


2

Not at all clear what you mean by "the energy of a star". A ten solar mass star that explodes as a core collapse (type II) supernova releases about $10^{46}$ J, mostly in the form of neutrinos. By comparison, the total rest mass energy of the star is around $2\times 10^{48}$ J. Another comparison would be how much energy a star releases during its ...


2

De-exictation is the process of transitioning from a high energy state to a lower energy state; the photon emitted has energy equal to the difference in the energy of the two states. If we're tacitly assuming that we started with a system in the ground (i.e. lowest energy) state, then something had to put the electron into the higher energy state before we ...


2

An average person uses approx. 1500-2500kcal/day. Since one kcal equals 4148J in SI units, that's between 6.2-10.4MJ per day. A day has 86400 seconds, which brings us to an average power consumption of 72-120W... about as much as a light bulb. :-) Physical exercise varies between light (300kcal/h) at an additional 350W to very strenuous at probably six ...


2

A (kilo)calorie is a unit of energy, while a watt is a unit of power, which describes the rate at which energy is expended. So a 100W bulb is using 100 joules a second. A kcal is about 4184 joules, so a 100W bulb takes about 42 seconds to consume (really: convert into light and heat) a kcal. The joule is the SI (derived) unit of energy. Units of energy ...


2

Yes. For example, consider the harmonic oscillator potential $V(x)$, where the ground state has energy $\hbar \omega / 2$. Then the ground state of the potential $V(x) - \hbar \omega / 2$ has zero energy. This works because in quantum mechanics, like in classical mechanics, absolute energies don't matter. You can always add or subtract constants. ...


1

This is a really good question. What you are wondering about is why, when the cross section is constant, the Bernoulli equation doesn't predict free fall. It doesn't have anything to do with viscosity if the fluid is considered inviscid. The reason that the Bernoulli equation cannot be extended to the case of constant cross section is that the usual form ...


1

When you work "fairly hard", your body can produce about 200 W of power - enough for two incandescent bulbs. Top athletes can produce more - in short bursts. Your body is roughly 25% efficient in converting "calories" (which are actually kilo calories) to Joules - meaning that if you work out hard enough to burn 600 kcal per hour, then you actually produced ...


1

The potential energy is the ability to perform work in the way that... potential energy $U$ is converted into kinetic $K$ energy during the fall. The kinetic energy implies a speed $v$ and thus causes a momentum $p=mv$. On impact this momentum is reduced drastically causing a force $F=dp/dt$. Is the impact-surface displaced by x, then the work $W=Fx$ has ...


1

EDIT: The question has been edited (to yet a more obscure form). Here I am replying to the original formulation: Is it possible to calculate the kinetic energy of a body if only its speed is given? Yes ... if the speed is $c$ (the speed of light). In the case of massless particles (think: photon) in the vacuum, what you'd call kinetic energy is ...



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