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Are all heaters (same wattage, electric to thermal, no geothermal or other extra energy source) exactly as efficient as each other? No. Let's focus just on electrically powered heaters. If you have a heater that basically consists of a resistor with a current passing through it, you have 100% efficiency of electrical energy to heat energy conversion. ...


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I think your problem is that you didn't change the units in the constant g. It has a value of approximately $9.8ms^{-2}$. Notice that it depends on meters. To obtain the correct result, you should use $980cms^{-2}$. Notice that this constant is off by a factor of 100, so that the result (after the square root) is off by a factor of $\sqrt{100}=10$.


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You're not the first, nor the last, to find the phrase "power flow" somehow wrong. For example, from W J Beaty's article on electrical misconceptions: ELECTRIC POWER FLOWS FROM GENERATOR TO CONSUMER? Wrong. Electric power cannot be made to flow. Power is defined as "flow of energy." Saying that power "flows" is silly. It's as silly as saying that ...


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Yes, at the fundamental level all energy terms are normally either kinetic or potential energy. The only demonstration of this that I know of requires a tool called the Lagrangian, which you might not be familiar with. But maybe you can at least get a flavor of how it goes. The Lagrangian, very briefly, is a particularly useful way to represent all the ...


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Yes you are. If a force is conservative, its work does not depend of any path between any points $A$ and $B$. Since the work integral can depend only on the initial and final points themselves, we define $$W_{A\rightarrow B}=\int_A^B\vec F\cdot d\vec r\equiv U(A)-U(B).$$ Now define the mechanical energy as $E=K+U$ so that $$dE=dK+dU.$$ Suppose there are two ...



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