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let me restate the question: What holds electron together and how? That depends on theory (view) of the electron. In the beginning of 20th century, people thought electron was a small marble packed with charged particles. These would repel each other with tremendous force so some balancing forces are needed in this model. This view was always quite ...


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There is no notion of quantization of charge in classical electrodynamics. Charge is a continuous, infinitely divisible quantity there, and there's nothing at all that would indicate what carries the charge. The electron (or any other particle, for that matter) is not predicted by classical electrodynamics, and thus none of the classical notions of ...


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For grains of sand, each grain is made of atoms, and the number of atoms in each grain can be different. There is no evidence that electrons are composed of plural particles.


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An electron is not a point particle. Point particles don't exist. The world is governed by quantum mechanics, which describes physical systems in terms of quantum mechanical observables, which are represented by Hermitian operators. Different observables represent different ways in which you can interact with a given system and copy information from it. For ...


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Your intuition about inertia is essentially correct. The spin state of an electron does not change instantly. If the electron is in the spin-up state then the z-component of its angular momentum is $\frac{1}{2} \hbar$. If it is in the spin-down state then its angular momentum is $-\frac{1}{2} \hbar$. Classically, angular momentum cannot change instantly, ...


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Spin of an electron is measured as a magnetic property. You should not visualize it as an electron "spinning" around its axis, which is what you seem to indicate if I'm not mistaken. Electrons are considered to be point particles. Also, the spin of an electron never changes instantaneously. For example, changes in the electron's spin in the Stern-Gerlach ...


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At the moment the grand majority of data in particle physics is modeled extremely well by the standard model which also has been able to predict new phenomena. The most recent success is the discovery of the Higgs meson at the LHC at CERN. The particles in the table are called elementary, because they are enough to explain the complexity we observe in ...



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