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If you say: According to me the electron is at rest. that means you have measured the electron momentum to be zero, in which case the electron position is completely uncertain. So you can't be sitting on the electron. If you say: Let us say I sit on an electron. that means you have measured its position precisely so you have no idea what its ...


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It is a thermal effect, the corresponding "force" is a so called stochastic force and not a fundamental force, but rather an effective description of entropic effects. Having a temperature causes the charge carriers to move about randomly, and therefore they tend to move from regions with high concentration to regions with low concentrations. At first it is ...


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As a general rule adding thermal energy doesn't cause electronic transitions. That's because typical electronic transition energies are a few electron volts or around 100kT at room temperature. In a metal the electrons aren't in discrete energy levels but instead reside in a continuous band of energy levels called the conduction band. While thermal energy ...


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Absolutely it can - and it happens all the time. If you excite an atom, it can go through various "stages" of decay back to the ground state - with each drop in energy resulting in an emission of radiation. This happens during photosynthesis: see this page from which I copy this image: As you can see, there are multiple paths for the energy to be lost by ...


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Yes, everything is a detector, but you need to quantify which things your system interacts with (and how strongly). Gravity is in some sense a poor example, because the quantum details of gravity are still an unsettled question (and gravity is a weak force regardless), so let's bypass that red-herring by replacing gravity with the electromagnetic field: As ...


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This is the hydrogen atom energy level solutions, as an easy example. The electron sits at the ground state, and can be kicked up to an excited state by the appropriate photon i.e. given that the photon has the quantized energy needed. For each energy level one can calculate using the solutions of the Schrodinger equation, the probability for the ...


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I don't know if I'm understanding your question right, but I think you are trying to pose a deeper question than it might seem at first sight... In ordinary quantum mechanics, when you study the hydrogen atom, you derive a set of solutions for the electron wavefunction using the Schrödinger equation (with different values of the energy). These are the ...


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You are correct, electric current consists of electrons travelling from one place to another. Some materials conduct electricity better than others. Copper is one of the best and that's why our conductors are usually made of copper. Aluminium is also very good (so is silver) and high-voltage cables are usually made of aluminium. However, everything conducts ...


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No. There is indeed a correlation between the nuclear charge $Z$ of an element and the kinetic energy of the innermost electrons, but there are two things to keep clear sight of: The correlation is not linear, so you cannot simply multiply the speed of the innermost electron by $Z$ and hope for things to just work out. The interior of a large atom is a ...


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Is a neutron star's residual light released similar to an exited atom the difference is gravity hold in the electrons instead of protons? No. Atomic energies are of order of keV at most, the electrons are bound in energy levels about the atom. There will only be photons produced if an electron is kicked to a higher energy level and then decays back ...


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Your question has several flaws. First, you say the electron is at rest at the origin. As John Rennie noted, this implies that the position and momentum are both sharp, which contradicts the uncertainty principle. There is no such thing as an electron at rest at a particular point. An electron is described by a wave function spread over an extended region ...


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The wikipedia article for Particle in a Box neatly explains how it obeys the uncertainty principle. Basically, a smaller box gives the particle a wider distribution of momentum, or more uncertainty in momentum.


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Some problems. First, in practice in this situation you're not going to want to use a discrete model, but rather use the continuum approximation. Second, your coefficients don't depend on $n$. Third, you totally ignore the momentum distribution of the electron, which is what relates the position and the time. So what would the continuum approximation look ...


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Yes, this happens and it's called London Dispersion force.


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This is too long for a comment. From Wikipedia In the most recent CODATA adjustments, the elementary charge is not an independently defined quantity. Instead, a value is derived from the relation $$e^2 = \frac{2h \alpha}{\mu_0 c} = 2h \alpha \epsilon_0 c$$ where $h$ is the Planck constant, $α$ is the fine structure constant, $μ_0$ is the ...


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You've asked some really good questions here. Before starting, I want to first mention that the traditional picture of particles moving through a wire in electostatics is missing some physics; for instance, it ignores the quantum mechanical nature of electrons. The reason we still teach this model is because it captures the main effects (the phenomenon of ...


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The atom absorbs the photon that kicks up an electron to an excited state, and it is the atom that will emit a photon when it de-excites. Not the electron. Is the invariant mass of an atom higher when the electron is in an excited state? Take the hydrogen atom. The ground state energy is at -13.6eV. This means that the mass of hydrogen is less than the ...


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Keep in mind that for whatever magical reason electrons repel each other (like charges), and are very attracted to protons (opposite charges). Due to the omni-directional bonding present with metals (electron sea model) electrons move freely around but the metal maintains a net charge of zero. Try not to think of the electrons as "testing the water." I find ...


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It depends a little on what you mean by "extreme" electric current, but the answer is probably no. The energy scales are wrong. Electric current in a metal is a sub-electron-volt process: a potential difference of much less than a volt can displace electrons all the way through a piece of metal. The weak interaction is a keV- or MeV-scale process. And ...


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TL; DR Short answer is the energy from the photon causes the electron to jump. Conservation of energy dictates that the photon would lose some energy, and it would be from the particle matter that it would act this way. Long Answer This is called the photoelectric effect. Basically this is caused by an energy transfer from a photon, acting as a particle ...


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It relies on conservation of energy and momentum and the equation for energy in special relativity: $E^2 = (pc)^2 + (mc^2)^2$. Here you go. Energy of photon: $E_\gamma = \hbar\omega = p_\gamma c$, where $p_\gamma$ is the momentum of the photon. Assume the electron is initially at rest, so it's energy is simply $m_ec^2$. By conservation of energy, the ...


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The effects of gravity are really only observable to us on a macroscopic (large) scale. When a large enough number of (perfectly neutral) Hydrogen atoms come together they will gravitate towards each other. That sets things in motion for the Hydrogen to heat up. Once they reach a high enough temperature and density, they will ionize and the protons can ...


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If you're looking for a strict derivation of the effective mass equation, check out S. Datta, Quantum phenomena. Reading, Mass.: Addison-Wesley, 1989. What he does is take the full Schrödinger equation with the periodic potential, and write it in the Bloch state basis. He then writes the effective mass equation in the plane wave basis. By comparing the ...



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