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1

A Zener is not like a normal diode. A normal diode lets current flow in only one direction and needs to be installed in the correct direction. A Zener diode is placed in the opposite direction, against the flow of current. A Zener diode will prevent current from flowing until it reaches a certain voltage, depending on the diode rating. Once this critical ...


1

Although there are different types of "radiation," their common effect is to transfer some/most of their energy to the material they "hit," resulting in the breaking of the atomic bonds and or structures of the material. When "enough" bonds and/or structures are broken, the material will fail. Since the electrical characteristics of electronic components are ...


2

Can we have electronics with charge carriers OTHER than electrons? Yes, see what Sebastian said above. And see the physicsworld article Taming light at the nanoscale: "Look around, and you will probably see numerous electronic and optical gadgets, such as mobile phones, personal digital assistants, laptops, TVs and digital cameras. These may all do ...


4

Depending on your view, there is electronics with other charge carriers. It is commonplace to have semiconductor devices where the relevant carriers are holes! Furthermore, batteries and electrolysis relies heavily on ions as charge carriers (but hardly count as electronics). I guess genuine electronics with ions will be difficult as charge carrier mobility ...


0

You need something that can be conducted along the wire to power electronics; if you were to get protons, rather than spreading from atom to atom you'd just end up changing the element of the atom or splitting it. The closest thing that you can do other than add electrons is chemically charge it, as in replace the batteries.


0

If we assume potential at infinity to be zero and Earth to be spherical then the potential at the surface of the earth is given by ${kq}/{r}$, where $k$ is a constant, $q$ is the charge on earth and $r$ its radius. As $q$ is extremely small and $r$ very large, the potential at Earth's surface is almost zero. So for all practical purposes we assume its ...


0

As explained here, "Electric current is the rate of charge flow past a given point in an electric circuit, measured in Coulombs/second which is named Amperes." The charge in a normal conductor is essentially all due to electron flow. Therefore, the rate of electrons past a given point in a circuit (your computer) can be calculated based only on the amount ...


-1

You might be asking how metal is such an efficient conductor. Some of the electrons move freely as a fluid. They are not locked in place around the atoms, and don't need "room" in the classical sense. Here is a wikipedia page going over the real details. On a scale much larger than the inter atomic distance a solid can be viewed as an aggregate of a ...


33

The electrons themselves don't move all that fast. The wave energy is the part that moves quickly. Picture it this way. You have 500 meters of pipe, with a small hole at the other end. The pipe is full of water and you increase the pressure at your end. Water will flow out the other end immediately. This is the electrical energy (pressure) and the ...


-1

Electrons can sneak pass all the atoms because of their wave function. They behave like waves not like particles. In short, because of quantum mechanics. In a periodic assembly of atoms like metallic solid they should not feel any resistance when moving through but because it is not perfectly periodic they feel aperiodic potential and this is why they ...


14

In fact, electron's speed is not so fast that light bulb glows up immediately. It is the electromagnetic field which travels in the circuit at near the speed of light that is resposible for it. After turn on the light, electron only acquires a little speed in addition its thermal speed. The thermal speed of electron can be estimated by $mv^2/2\approx ...


-2

Just get 3 steel plate and rust one of them with a solding iron and touch the tip of the 2 steel plate on the rust. This is a pnp transistor


0

It's a crystal. It guides energy with less dissipation then do this other materials.


1

The stroboscopes we had at school, in a largely pre-electronic age, were simply rotating discs with a hole near the edge. You shone a light at the edge, and the RPM of the disc determined how rapidly the strobe would flash (as the hole passed in front of the light).


1

It comes from the fact that most strobes are, or were, used to examine car engines. Specifically the distributor. Hence RPM


4

An electrical spark will vapourise part of the surface where it is generated. With a large spark this can cause visible pitting, though if the spark is small you may only be able to see the damage under a microscope. Anyhow, just as in a flame metal ions present in the vapour can be excited by collisions and then decay to emit light. The colour of the light ...



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