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The electrons themselves don't move all that fast. The wave energy is the part that moves quickly. Picture it this way. You have 500 meters of pipe, with a small hole at the other end. The pipe is full of water and you increase the pressure at your end. Water will flow out the other end immediately. This is the electrical energy (pressure) and the ...

14

In fact, electron's speed is not so fast that light bulb glows up immediately. It is the electromagnetic field which travels in the circuit at near the speed of light that is resposible for it. After turn on the light, electron only acquires a little speed in addition its thermal speed. The thermal speed of electron can be estimated by \$mv^2/2\approx ...

5

Nowadays, the answer is negligibly so. Video cameras now digitise the image as pixels in parallel using charge coupled device technology. Former technologies, however, would emit appreciable bremstrahlung from decelerating electron beams, as I now describe. Before the coming of CCD arrays, the main video technology was the scanned photocathode, also called ...

4

Your eye has a lens in it. Without a lens, the light is all spread out and overlapping, just like you say. The light from any given pixel goes out in all directions, but a lens can make it re-converge back to a point. Hold up a sheet of white paper. Is there an image on it? No, of course not. It has light on it---light coming from each object in the ...

4

If we believe this measurement shown by Omen, smartphone cameras are basically useless below Dose rates of 10uSv/h. The max. exposure limit for a human who is not a radiation worker is 1mSv/year, which translates into roughly 0.11uSv/h. In other words, the camera chip in a phone would have to be 100 times more sensitive to pick up relevant amounts of ...

4

… an ideal power source capable of providing infinite current with no drop in the voltage it supplies. … Let's ignore the effects of current density on superconductors for now. … In these phrases is the explanation for the contradictory possibilities you have computed: you have supposed an impossible circuit. As a mathematical model, the behavior of ...

4

An electrical spark will vapourise part of the surface where it is generated. With a large spark this can cause visible pitting, though if the spark is small you may only be able to see the damage under a microscope. Anyhow, just as in a flame metal ions present in the vapour can be excited by collisions and then decay to emit light. The colour of the light ...

4

Depending on your view, there is electronics with other charge carriers. It is commonplace to have semiconductor devices where the relevant carriers are holes! Furthermore, batteries and electrolysis relies heavily on ions as charge carriers (but hardly count as electronics). I guess genuine electronics with ions will be difficult as charge carrier mobility ...

3

According to the Review of Particle Physics (Section 33.7.4 of the 2014 edition) there are two main causes of radiation damage for electronic devices: Bulk damage due to displacement of atoms from their lattice sites. This leads to increased leakage current, carrier trapping, and build-up of space charge that changes the required operating voltage. ...

3

Ionizing radiation loses energy in matter by creating electron-ion pairs. Suppose you have an 1 MeV charged particle stopping in a silicon crystal. The first ionization energy for free silicon atoms is about 8 eV. The ionization energy will be a little different for silicon atoms on the lattice, but not grossly so: your 1 MeV charged particle is going to ...

3

Yes, there is a fundamental reason why electricity is so universal. It is because matter is made of electric charges bound together (protons and electrons). When you think of non-electric technologies such as the wheel, realize that the wheel relies on the rigidity of matter which depends on the bonds between atoms which are electric in nature. So even ...

3

It's called a diode because the device has two terminals. Devices that have three terminals are called triodes, and those with five pentodes. Words of that type have fallen by the wayside except in the realm of vacuum tube electronics ... except for the word diode, which has hung on. Note that the Wikipedia article that you cite refers specifically to ...

3

As Kevin Reid aptly explains, the circuit you have drawn is not realizable. But, let's take the closest physical thing you could build, assuming: your voltage source can supply enough energy that we don't hit its limits like all physical things, this apparatus has non-zero size Then, the circuit you actually built is this: simulate this circuit ...

3

As the producer of one of these apps (GammaPix, available for Android and iOS, if you'll forgive the plug), allow me to weigh in here. Yes, smartphone, and other CMOS and CCD cameras, can detect radiation. While cameras are less sensitive then Geiger-Muller counters, specialized solid state detectors, and scintillators, they are sensitive enough for quite a ...

3

A capacitor is often used for "decoupling". The wires into any electrical appliance have inductance (because they are long and thin). This means that if there is a sudden increased demand in current, there will be a significant voltage drop. A capacitor can act as a "tiny battery" that briefly supplies this current while the main supply catches up. A fan ...

2

A couple of suggestions: (1) the EE stackexchange site a better home for this question (2) simply solve for the voltage across the capacitor and the current through the inductor. Once you have those, the energies stored, as a function of time are just $$W_L(t) = \frac{L}{2}i^2_L$$ and $$W_C(t) = \frac{C}{2}v^2_C$$ Since this is evidently a DC circuit ...

2

For good doping you need two things: (1) get enough dopant in to be useful in changing carrier concentrations, and (2) having an energy level close to a band edge to generate electrons (holes) in the band, rather than making a mid-level recombination center. The below is assuming you are trying to dope Silicon. Data is generally from Sze's excellent ...

2

You are massively overthinking the problem. The collector current is given (by the diagram) to be 150x the base current. The sum of base and collector current has to flow through the emitter... That's all you need to solve this. In particular, a current source will look to a circuit like "whatever resistance" it needs to be in order for the correct current ...

2

Typically it is the ferrite cores in inductors/transformers that resonate mechanically, or through magnetostrictive effects that produce a high pitched whine. Switching PSUs are the main culprit. It can also occur when the EM fields interact with steel components in the PSU.

2

I think it might be one of those things where people do something because everybody does. I agree with you, a figure of merit that includes noise would make more sense. But, as the circuit designer that I am, I could also say that that wouldn't be the end of it. For example, in the classic trans-impedance amplifier used for these kind of detectors the ...

2

Can we have electronics with charge carriers OTHER than electrons? Yes, see what Sebastian said above. And see the physicsworld article Taming light at the nanoscale: "Look around, and you will probably see numerous electronic and optical gadgets, such as mobile phones, personal digital assistants, laptops, TVs and digital cameras. These may all do ...

1

Although there are different types of "radiation," their common effect is to transfer some/most of their energy to the material they "hit," resulting in the breaking of the atomic bonds and or structures of the material. When "enough" bonds and/or structures are broken, the material will fail. Since the electrical characteristics of electronic components are ...

1

A Zener is not like a normal diode. A normal diode lets current flow in only one direction and needs to be installed in the correct direction. A Zener diode is placed in the opposite direction, against the flow of current. A Zener diode will prevent current from flowing until it reaches a certain voltage, depending on the diode rating. Once this critical ...

1

It comes from the fact that most strobes are, or were, used to examine car engines. Specifically the distributor. Hence RPM

1

The stroboscopes we had at school, in a largely pre-electronic age, were simply rotating discs with a hole near the edge. You shone a light at the edge, and the RPM of the disc determined how rapidly the strobe would flash (as the hole passed in front of the light).

1

First, for simplicity, assume the diode is ideal. For an ideal diode, the voltage across cannot be positive (the voltage at the anode is either equal to or less than the voltage at the cathode). Since the cathode of the diode is connected to the 0V reference, and since the anode is connected to the output node, it follows that the output voltage cannot be ...

1

The exact equations for I-V characteristics of transistors are derived using quantum-mechanics. Several approximations can be used, one of which is based on the shottky barrier analysis This reference here derives the I-V linear and quadratic approximation (in saturation) for FET transistors. Another reference here UPDATE: As @QMechanic pointed, ...

1

The negative differential resistance creates a special phenomena: under a certain bias and certain incident electron energies, the transmission function through the double barrier is nearly zero. In other words, for a finite voltage domain, the current is nearly zero, i.e. a rectifying behaviour. This can be referred to as "generalized diode", since the ...

1

1) If the n and p doped regions are externally connected using a perfectly conducting wire, why will not any current flow? In thermal equilibrium no current can flow if one connects the two sides of the junction using a perfectly conducting wire. The built-in potential existing at the junction will remain the same, drift and diffusion currents will ...

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