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18

First, the strong force acts on scales where our classical idea of forces as something that obeys Newton's laws breaks down anyway. The proper description of the strong force is as a quantum field theory. On the level of quarks, this is a theory of gluons, but on scales of the nucleus, only a "residual strong force", the nuclear force remains, which can be ...


12

An "RF cage" is commonly used to keep signals IN as well as OUT (see for example the mesh door of a microwave oven.) The short answer is - reciprocity says "if it works in one direction, it works in the opposite direction". The induced charges on the sphere (in the case of a charge inside it) are just enough to cancel the field outside exactly - because ...


9

They are technically units for incommensurate quantities, but in practice this is often just a technicality. The magnetic field that makes sense ($B$) is measured in teslas (SI) or gauss (CGS), and the magnetic field that people spoke about 100 years ago ($H$) is measured in amps per meter (SI, also equivalent to a number of other things) or oersteds (CGS). ...


7

The radiation pattern of any dipole antenna looks similar to what you are showing in the 2D plots - but in your interpretation of the 3D pattern you have the axes wrong. A dipole antenna with the main axis vertical will transmit power in the horizontal plane, with less and less power as you go further away (inverse square law). If you measure the power as a ...


6

This is a relatively tricky one, because it involves the differences between the $\mathbf B$ field and the $\mathbf H$ field in the SI and CGS systems, and those relationships change in the different systems. In short: Oersteds are used to measure the $\mathbf H$ field in CGS units. Teslas are used to measure the $\mathbf B$ field in SI units. In the SI ...


5

Your existing answer talks about quark confinement, but stable nuclei can't really be described using quark and gluon degrees of freedom. Also your existing answer doesn't answer your title question: why don't nuclei collapse to a point? To first approximation, nuclei do collapse into a point. The diameter of a nucleus is typically about $10^{-5}$ the ...


4

From a quick google search, it seems that Oersteds are used for defining magnetic field strength and Teslas are used for defining magnetic field strength in terms of flux density. They seem to not really be meant to be converted between, though you technically can (as evidenced by the other answers here). This website and this website might be helpful to ...


3

Any electric charge would experience a force due to an electric field. Therefore, the electric field in electromagnetic waves produces currents in antennas. It happens all the time in wireless communication.


3

All objects and fields that have a nonzero mass, energy, or momentum interact gravitationally, and so do neutrinos – although they're very light and hard to produce so the gravitational force from any neutrinos we know is undetectable at this time. Neutrinos also have negligible but nonzero interactions with the electromagnetic field. They're uncharged and ...


3

The problem lies in what we learn about good old constrained dynamics from traditional Dirac approach is not complete and is somehow inconsistent, and the above is one example of this. This was the message of Pitts' paper mentioned in the question above, who reviewed a bunch of previous work on this very matter. I will mention couple of references from that ...


3

In general, it is not. Assume a constant current flowing through a cylindrical conductor. Applying Ampere's circuital law for a surface inside the cylinder: $$\oint {\vec Bd\vec l = {\mu _0}\int\!\!\!\int {\vec J} d\vec s} $$ $$B2\pi r = {\mu _0}J{{\pi {r^2}} \over {\pi {a^2}}}$$ $$B = {{{\mu _0}} \over {2\pi {a^2}}}Jr$$


2

1) It is necessary for a plane EM wave. If one assumes solutions to the Maxwell's equation to be plane waves, it is not hard to show that $\vec B \cdot \vec E = 0$. Namely, take the third Maxwell's equation and dot both sides with $\vec E$. $$\nabla \times \vec E = - {{\partial \vec B} \over {\partial t}}$$ $$i\vec k \times \vec E = i\omega \vec B{\rm{...


2

In stimulated emission in a laser the emitted radiation has the same phase (and hence direction) as the incident radiation. The mirrors select some of those for regeneration back through the amplifier, where the process continues, and intense radiation builds up between the mirrors. Some of the atoms will decay by spontaneous emission, and that radiation ...


2

So the total current supplied to your two solenoids will be 4 times larger. And that means that you are heating the supply lines, or fry your circuit breakers


2

If you have a single tube, the current will flow on it directly without making the $N$ loops. It will result a different direction, i.e. different magnetic field, its magnetic field will be much weaker. Having the loops, the magnetic fields created by the induvidual loops is added. Actually, you have "the same current" using $N$ times to produce the ...


2

Even a "perfect" Faraday cage does not block EM radiation. If a EM radiation hits a cage the incoming photons or get dissipated in the mesh and re-transmitted with longer wavelength to both sides of the mesh (in principle a sort of black body radiation), heating the inside and the surrounding of the cage, or some amount of photons are going through the mesh ...


2

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Magnetic_monopole You are correct in your intuition that there would be a "Magnetic Current" if monopoles existed. Indeed it is fun to imagine a beautiful symmetry between the Electric Force and Magnetic Force, but alas, nature only gives us half of it. No it isnt possible to simplify this relationship mathmatically. It takes ...


1

According to Wikipedia In perfect conductors, the interior magnetic field must remain fixed but can have a zero or nonzero value. Require a constant magnetic flux - the magnetic flux within the perfect conductor must be constant with time. Any external field applied to a perfect conductor will have no effect on its internal field configuration. ...


1

The magnetic field is not 0, but the integral around the contour is. The reason you cannot apply Ampere's law in this case is that the magnetic field is not homogeneous along the circle


1

According to this website, A Birkeland current is a set of currents that flow along geomagnetic field lines connecting the Earth’s magnetosphere to the Earth's high latitude ionosphere. These then are driven by solar wind in the Earth's magnetosphere. Birkeland currents are caused by the movement of plasma perpendicular to the magnetic field. They ...


1

In the book "Plasmonics and Plasmonic Metamaterials: Analysis and Applications" edited by G. Shvets, Igor Tsukerman, we read in section 2.1: In other words - they clearly state that the enhanced reflectivity is a result of the presence of a inverted dye - that is, a dye with a population inversion, meaning that it can be subject to stimulated emission. ...


1

Once in it won't come out, it just becomes part of the BH, adding mass and charge (plus or minus), and probably angularity momentum, to the BH. When something gets inside the horizon, it can never escape, out of any side of the BH. There is another process where one can use charged particles to extract energy from the electric energy of the BH. This is ...


1

No. The reason: Below the event horizon, there is no outgoing timelike direction. It means, it doesn't matter how do you accelerate a particle, it will move inwardly: The cones are the light cones of the object, what means if it would send out a radio signal in every direction, it would go in these cones. The best reachable orbit (-> the most delayed ...


1

A neutrino is thought to interact only through the weak force and gravity. They interact primarily, though, through the weak force (perhaps explaining the Martin/Shaw comment). Interestingly, since the neutrino has a minuscule mass (as opposed to none at all), it could have tiny neutrino magnetic movements, therefore allowing the possibility that it could ...


1

You understand that mechanical devices such as levers, gears, springs and pulleys all conserve energy. Do you think that some elaborate combination of such devices can violate conservation of energy? The same applies if magnets are included - we know that interactions between magnets conserve energy, so any combination of mechanical devices and magnets also ...


1

Google mathematical methods in the physical sciences pdf and you will be able to download an ebook by Mary Boas, which was written for people like yourself. As Jacob says above, calculus is a must learn, and lots of websites give you examples of different levels of calculus problems. Conceptually, a good textbook is Halliday and Resnicks Physics, which sets ...


1

The statement "On the cylindrical surface $\mathbf{J}\cdot\hat{n}=0$..." refers to just inside the wire so $\sigma\neq0$ and $\mathbf{E}$ cannot be whatever it wants.


1

The problem with this question is all of the assumptions that go into it. When we're taught physics, we are given analogies that help our understanding, but mislead us when we try to dig deeper. Firstly, charged particles like electrons are always surrounded by an electromagnetic field. Changes in that field propagate through space at the speed of light and ...


1

I would like to add that if we do not consider the elementary particles but think of those charged spheres made of metal, they can actually break. If you keep on removing electrons from a material block and protect the discharge from the neighboring atmosphere, after a stage the repulsion among the like charges become stronger than their cohesive force of ...


1

If the charges are moving at (near) c relative to a given reference frame (there is no mention of a reference frame in the question, but there must be one, otherwise we wouldn't know there is any - inertial - movement whatsoever), but they are at rest to each other, then according to SR postulates we may as well assume that they are simply not moving at all. ...



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