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16

It depends on the internal resistance of the source. Fist consider a "voltage supply". What does "voltage supply" even mean? A voltage supply is supposed to output a fixed voltage no matter what we connect it to. Is this even possible? Suppose we connect the two terminals of the voltage supply together through a piece of wire, i.e. a really low resistance ...


11

If you express power loss in a power line as $V^2/R$, the $V$ in that expression is the voltage difference between the two ends of the power line, not the voltage difference between the power line and ground. To supply a fixed amount of power $P_L$ to a load, if the voltage at the load $V_L$ is larger, the current $I=P_L/V_L$ can be smaller. If the power ...


5

The instantaneous power expended in a resistor is proportional to $V^2$ (i.e. independent of its direction), so the average power expended is given by the mean square voltage! The square of the average absolute voltage will not yield the power expended in the resistor. Edit: And actually this close-to-duplicate question does have more extensive answers ...


5

Your original text admitted three interpretations, and I'm leaving the answers here: 1: What happens with a toy model when there's a circuit with an ideal battery and no resistance? An infinite current moves around the circuit at one moment in time (ideal batteries have a finite charge). The energy must leave the system as Electromagnetic radiation - ...


4

Suppose your pipes form a loop i.e. water can flow through the pipes and get back to where it started. As the water flows round the loop there will be some places where pressure rises (e.g. a pump = battery) and some places where pressure falls (e.g. a restriction = resistor). However if the water goes all the way round the loop back to its starting point ...


4

know that the two conversion coefficients are close but I simply cannot see why the RMS value is the one that conforms to reality. It's true that we can ask for the average of the magnitude of a sinusoid over time and calculate it. This is a useful quantity if, for example, we want the time average voltage at the output of a full wave rectifier ...


3

It depends on if your power supply is constant voltage or constant current. Usually, it's the former, so it means that the $P = V^2/R$ is the more appropriate one to use. Therefore, a smaller resistor will dissipate more power in this situation. In some situations (electromagnets is one that comes to mind), the load is driven with constant current, so ...


3

Let us crudely imagine the voltage source as a pump pumping water up to the top of a water slide, and the resistor as the slide itself with water flowing down through it. The height difference between the top of the slide and the bottom of the slide is the same as the height difference between the top of the pump and the bottom of the pump. The voltage ...


3

The definition of current density is $J = \frac{I}{A}$, or more precisely, $J = \frac{\mathrm{d}^2 I}{\mathrm{d}^2 A}$. It is always true, by definition. $J=\sigma E$ is a different equation: it's equivalent to Ohm's law, which you know better as $V = IR$. Ohm's law is not universal; it only works for certain materials, called ohmic materials. For an ohmic ...


2

The electric field strength can be represented by the equation $$E=F/q$$ where $E$ is the electric field strength in N/C, $F$ is the force in Newtons, and $q$ is the charge in Coulombs. If we take the equation that you provided: $$\Delta p=qEt$$, and substitute $F/q$ in for $E$, then $$\Delta p=q\frac Fq t$$ which simplifies to $$\Delta p=Ft$$ This looks ...


2

A general answer which is not of any particular use is that electrical energy, and the forms in which we store it, are typically very low entropy systems. The lower the entropy the more they "want" to dissipate and the harder it is to stop that tendency to turn into (ultimately) heat. Same way that it is a lot easier to store water that is 10 degC above ...


2

The internal resistance of batteries is caused by a number of different mechanisms. A major contribution comes from the ionic conduction mechanisms in the electrolyte solution. Ions are large and can only move very slowly in electrolytes. Another source for the voltage drop is the concentration and current density dependent polarization of electrodes. To ...


2

The safety of a low voltage DC power supply is not established by the voltage on its output, but by the isolation between its input and output terminals. For example, a defective 12V power supply may have a short between the 120V AC input terminal and its negative output terminal. A user who would be connected to ground would then experience a 120V AC ...


2

This is as much a chemistry question as it is an electricity question, because batteries are chemical devices. A battery is constructed such that there's a redox reaction split into two half-reactions which must move electrons through your circuit in order to complete. The reaction happens at a finite speed, and may also be limited by how fast various ions ...


2

Yes indeed. Assuming that by storing static electricity you mean storing an electric charge directly then there is currently a lot of interest in devices called supercapacitors that do exactly this. In particular they are being investigated for use in electric vehicles. Storing a high charge density in a capacitor is hard because it produces a very strong ...


2

An intuitive tool to understand resistivity in the classical context, is Drude model. Consider a 3 Dimensional lattice, of stationary obstacles, that are separated by a characteristic length $\lambda$. Now consider a charged particle, operating under a potential difference that creates a constant E-field in this 3D lattice, let's say in the $\hat{x}$ ...


2

Waffle's answer shows you exactly why the RMS isn't the average: Here, the average value of $V(t)$ clearly isn't $2V_p/\pi$ that you've obtained, it's zero. The half-cycle business doesn't make much sense given that if you chose $\pi/2$ to $\pi$, instead of 0 to $\pi/2$, you'd have a negative average, so which would be the true "average" $+2V_p/\pi$ or ...


2

There is a simple picture that might help you: think of a wire as a pipe full of electrons. If you put pressure on one end of a pipe, the liquid in the pipe will transmit that pressure all the way to the other end. If you pump a little bit of liquid into a pipe, an equivalent amount of liquid will come out at the other end. It won't be the same liquid, ...


2

The definition of RMS is Root Mean Square and means the square root of the avarage of the square of some quantity, that is $a_{RMS}=\sqrt{\langle a^2 \rangle}$. So for the case of a sinusoidal current, we would get $$V_{RMS}^2=\frac{1}{T}\int_0^T\left(V_p\sin\frac{2\pi t}{T}\right)^2dt=\frac{V_p^2}{2}\implies\\ V_{RMS}=\frac{V_p}{\sqrt2}$$


2

CuriousOne's comments basically answered your question. I will add that if enough current is allowed to suddenly flow it can vaporize materials very rapidly, including metal. This sudden vaporization can create a rapid expansion and if that expansion is restricted by something then it can explode in the same fashion as a bomb. You often hear of ...


2

As you said, current is like water flow similarly voltage is like water level and voltage difference like difference of water level. We know that water flow from higher level to lower level like current flow from higher voltage to lower voltage. Voltage difference means there is a difference of charge i.e. difference in number of electrons. Now we consider a ...


2

In addition to the good answers above here is something to think about. If the resistance is zero then for a current to flow there does not need to be a battery - the emf can be zero. No work is done as the current flows. This may sound like a strange case, but it is how many strong magnets work in nmr (nuclear magnetic resonance) spectrometers. The have a ...


2

Yes, there is a fundamental reason why electricity is so universal. It is because matter is made of electric charges bound together (protons and electrons). When you think of non-electric technologies such as the wheel, realize that the wheel relies on the rigidity of matter which depends on the bonds between atoms which are electric in nature. So even ...


2

how can this be true? If we connect 1.5V cell to a 10 ohm resistor, the current is, by Ohm's law, 0.15A and the power delivered to the resistor by the cell is 0.225W. Now, connect a 9V battery in place of the 1.5V cell. The current is now, by Ohm's law, 0.9A and the power delivered to the resistor is now 8.1W. The 9V battery must deliver far more ...


2

You probably did some wrong calculation, because your reasoning works. Take a circle of radius $r$ a distance $a$ above the charge. The increase $d\Phi$ of the flux by increasing the radius by $dr$ is given by $$d\Phi=\frac{q}{4\pi\epsilon_0}\frac{2\pi r \cos \theta dr}{a^2+r^2}=\frac{q}{2\epsilon_0}\frac{ar dr}{(a^2+r^2)^{3/2}},$$ where $\theta$ is the ...


2

Your reasoning is correct, it's just a lot harder to do with the surfaces you've chosen. Draw a small, elemental ring at some arbitrary height above the charge. A line from any point on the ring to the charge subtends the polar angle $\theta$ with the z-axis and is a radial distance $r$ from it. (i.e. $r$ and $\theta$ are the usual spherical polar ...


1

What you could say is "if energy is lost in a resistor, then why doesn't the velocity of the charged particles increase, as per Work-Energy theorem?". So you're question should really go something like "Why doesnt current which is $Q/t$ increase if the velocity will increase after voltage drops"? The answer to this is that we assume all potential energy ...


1

AC can be made from DC, and vice versa. DC is a steady voltage, with AC the voltage fluctuates from negative to positive and back, many times per second. Most electricity generators generate AC. The reason for preferring AC is that, historically, it is easier change voltage with AC: all you need is a transformer. The generators generate a high voltage, ...


1

The Kirchoff Voltage law states that the sum of emfs in a circuit is equal to the total potential drop in the circuit. So for a simple example, where you a 6V cell, for example, and 2 resistors in series. The 6V cell can be seen as a place where the water is given potential energy - if we imagine a ramp, it would be the water being pumped up to the top of ...


1

Ions can indeed carry current (ex. electrolysis). "An electric current is a flow of electric charge. In electric circuits this charge is often carried by moving electrons in a wire. It can also be carried by ions in an electrolyte, or by both ions and electrons such as in a plasma.[1]"



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