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Think of it in terms of current, V, W, and Z are in series, so each is equally bright. X and Y are in parallel, so each gets half the current of the others. If you assume each bulb is a constant resistance R (not true for incandescent bulbs, by the way), then V,W and Z will each dissipate $i^2R$. For X and Y, since each has a current i/2, the power will be ...


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If you want to include "all real world effects" in your analysis, you need to make sure you include all effects. At the very least, include parasitics. And include the fact that your "real world voltage source" has finite impedance, output capacitance, inductance in the leads, ... So when you state Say it starts of at a voltage V when you connect it to ...


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The Doppler shift for small speeds is $\Delta f/f = \Delta v/c$, where $\Delta v$ is the (signed) speed of the source relative to the detector, and I'm using $c$ as the speed of sound. So let's plug in some numbers. I'm going to use numbers that will produce a large effect to see how larger an effect is plausible. Let's take a woofer operating at $f = 200 ...


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The conceptual problem here is that of EMF, $\mathcal{E}$ vs Electric Potential, V. They aren't really the same thing despite being measured in the same units. For instance the EMF is caused by an external agent that isn't the conservative electrostatic field, like say a chemical reaction in a battery or a solar cell. Work is done to cause a charge ...


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Electrochemical cells (batteries) are not passive components, instead they're active charge-pumps having internal feedback effects which produces a relatively constant voltage at the output terminals. If an external field impinges on a battery's terminals, this will produce a temporary small change in potential on the terminals. But the battery then ...



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