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A battery is no capacitor, and the actual charge stored in the battery terminals is very low. When you connect the anode of one battery to the cathode of another, that charge is transferred very quickly, and the voltage drops to zero. When you connect anode and cathode of the same battery, a chemical reaction takes place, and charges flow inside the battery ...

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Okay, so capacitors allow current to flow, but not electrons to flow, between the terminals. As a consequence, when they are operational, a density of electrons builds up on one side and a density of missing-electrons builds up on the other side, until the charge on either plate is given by $|Q| = C |V|$ where $C$ is the capacitance and $V$ is the voltage ...

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To basically summarize and re-organize the linked-to answers: 1) When a charge $q$ is moving (say at velocity v) through a perfect conductor such as an ideal wire, it requires no force to maintain its velocity because it encounters no resistance. This is good, since there can be no electric field inside a perfect conduct and thus no force can be applied to ...

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